Introduction · Physico-geographical toponyms · Types of Türkic toponyms · Northern Turkestan · Central Turkestan · Southern Turkestan · Literature · Ethnonym Index
Windows 1251 for Cyrillics
Shamsiddin Sirojiddin ogly Kamoliddin
ANCIENT TÜRKIC TOPONYMS OF THE MIDDLE ASIA
Tashkent, Shark, 2006, ISBN 978-9943-00-003-2
Editor-in-chief Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Mirsodik Ishokov
© Sh. S. Kamoliddin, 2006
© Main edition IPAK ‘‘Shark’‘, 2006
2010 edition: ISBN 10: 3838398289 / 3-8383-9828-9 ISBN 13: 9783838398280
The Arabic sources mention the country with a name al-Haital, with which designated the Ephtalite (al-Haital) lands north from the Amu Darya [al-Moqaddasi, p. 261]. The name al-Haital the medieval authors traced to the name of the legendary forefather of Ephtalites, whose family tree, like also that of the Türks [ad-Dinavari, p. 4-5; at-Tabari, ser. I, p. 211-212], they traced to the prophet Nuh (bibl. Noah) [Yakut, bd. 4, p. 999]. Per al-Horezmi, in the 10th century as the descendants of Ephtalites (al-Haital) they viewed the Türks of the tribes Halach and Kandjina in the Tocharistan [al-Khowarezmi, p. 119]. The name of the city Yaftal in Badahshan was connected with Ephtalites [al-Samani, f. 601 V; Yakut, vol. 4, p. 1023].
In the legend Isfandijar, a son of the Balkh king Bushtasba (Vishtaspa), conquered the country of Türks, reaching its most remote limits, Tubbata (Tibet) and Bab Sul (Gate of Judgment) [at-Tabari, ser. I, p. 896]. Biruni names a mountain country at-Turk, which was between Tibet and Kabul, i. e. in the upper course of the Amu Darya [Biruni, 1963, p. 196]. The Northern Tocharistan city Vakhsh the medieval Persian encyclopedia calls ‘‘Turkestan city” [Baevsky, 1980, p. 85].
The ancient Türkic monuments recorded a toponym Temir-kapug (Iron Gate) [Klyashtorny, 1964, p. 71-73], also mentioned in other versions, in the Chinese sources as Te-min-guan, in the Arabian as Bab al-Hadid, and in the Persian as Dar-i Ahanin, all calques of the Türkic name [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 122-124]. During the Middle Ages this was called the Buzgala-hona gorge in the Baisun mountains, where during the Early Middle Age epoch was a border point between the Sogd and Tocharistan [Rtveladze, 1986, p. 34-39]. The Türkic form Temur-kapu (kapug) is also recorded in the medieval sources [Mustawfi, p. 180, 244]. During the Middle Ages this gorge also carried another Türkic name Kahlaga [Shomiy, p. 55]. In the sources was not found a presumed Sogdian calque of this name (Ispene dbar) [Lurie, 2001, p. 25], from which follows that the Sogdians probably used the Türkic name. According to the Chinese sources, this mountain pass was also called ‘‘pass of Türks’‘ [Tugusheva, 1991, p. 7] or a barrier against Türks [Beal, 1990, p. 49].
113On the road from the Iron gate to Termez is kishlak Sairob, with the name of the same root with the name Sairam. A kishlak with the same name is also in the Kashkadarya valley [Nafasov, 1988, p. 162]. During the Middle Ages the same name also had a city located in the middle course of the Syr-Darya [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 111; vol. 3, p. 191]. It has etymology from the Türkic word sairam (saryam), meaning ‘‘shoal” [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 191, 323].
Among the so-called Türco-Sogdian coins is a number of issues with an image of a Türkic ruler and Sogdian inscription ordu Halach (' rdw gllch), i. e. ‘‘Ordu of Haladjes’‘ [Smirnova, 1981, p. 54]. The ancient Türkic ethnonym Halach was preserved until now in the name of the city Halach near Kerki (Turkmenistan), and the city Halchayan in the Denau province (Uzbekistan). In the Halchayan enclave on the right bank of the Surhandarya in the Kushan time was a city, the remains of which is the fortress Karabag-tepa [Pugachenkova, 1966, p. 28]. Near it are remains of several medieval settlements of the 10-12 centuries, and on the opposite bank of the river is a huge Muslim cemetery of same time [Pugachenkova, 1960, p. 327]. Allegedly, the Haladjes were a most ancient of the Türkic tribes in the Middle Asia, whose descendants are a small nation occupying the southern bank of the Caspian Sea [Zeinalov, 1972, p. 75].
I. Markvart thought that the name of the Chagani-an area comes from the Mongolian word tsagan which means ‘‘white’‘ [Bartold, 1977, p. 787]. The origin of name Chagan is also linked with the Nenets (Russian derisive ‘‘Samoed”) word saga [Yailenko, 1988, p. 133].
In the Chaganian mountains during the Middle Ages is mentioned the city Basand [Hudud al-Alam, p. 114; al-Istakhri, p. 340; Ibn Haukal, p. 519; al-Moqaddasi, p. 284, 344], identified with the present city Baisun, which name is formed from the Türkic words bai and sin and means ‘‘sacred mountain” [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 145]. The ornamental motives on the ceramics of the Kushan time from the settlement the Payon-kurgan located at the foot of the Baisun-tau are predominately connected with the symbolism of the mountains and heavenly arch, widely spread among the nomadic tribes living in the extensive territories enclosed by the mountains [Abdullaev, 2000, p. 116-117]. The name of the settlement Djardjik in the Chaganian [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 8, p. 152] is derived from the Türkic word yar “ravine” [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 156, 309]. The same name is carried by Say (íîñèò ñàé? - Translator’s Note) in the Jakkabag district in the Kashkadarya province [Nafasov, 1988, p. 72]. On the road from Termez in the Chaganian were settlements Darzangi (Darzanki) [al-Jakubi, p. 289; Hudud al-Alam, p. 114] and Barangi (Barandji) [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 33; Kodama, p. 211], which names are formed with the affix -ki (-gi) or -ii (-ji).114
In the Termez province during the Middle Ages was a settlement Shaishak [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 470] which name, judging by the affix -aq (-uq), could be Türkic 91. Near Schuman was a city Andiyan or Andigan [al-Istakhri, p. 340; Ibn Haukal, p. 519], which name is identical with the name of the Fergana city Andigan (Andijan), formed from the Türkic ethnonym Andi. A kishlak with the same name is east of the kishlak Dasht-i Bedi-Kalon in the Ordjonikidzebad (Stalinist time, Soviet-concosted toponymic invention, now~~~~~~~ - Translator’s Note) district [Yakubov, Khmelnitskiy, 1976, p. 197]. The component Andi also contains the name of the city Andicharag (Andidjarag, Andisharag) in Huttalan [al-Istakhri, p. 277, 297, 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 430, 447, 460; al-Moqaddasi, p. 49, 290, 291].
91 The affix -aq, -uq, -q belong to the most productive word-forming elements in the ancient Türkic language [DTS, p. 660].
The name Huttalan is linked with the strongest among the Türks people Huttalah, who used in foals for food [al-Bakuvi, p. 104]. In the Sogdian sources Huttalan is mentioned in the form gwttwrstan, a loanword that belongs to the ancient pre-Sogdian toponymic layer [Smirnova, 1961, p. 223]. In the Huttalan during the Middle Ages is mentioned city Rustak Bik, the owner of which by the name Bik bred thoroughbred horses [Hudud al-Alam, p. 119; al-Istakhri, p. 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 447, 518; al-Moqaddasi, p. 290]. In the 9th century the city was a possession of al-Haris ibn Asad ibn Bik [al-Jakubi, p. 289]. The name of this city and adjoining it extensive rustak, located between the rivers Pargar and Andicharag, is connected with the Türkic title Bek (prince - Translator’s Note). In the vicinity of the Huttalan capital was a lake Nazkul, on which bank were grazing the ‘‘bik’‘ horses [Ibn Khordadbeh, p. 180]. The main city Hulbuk of Huttalan is mentioned in the Chinese sources in the form Ko-lo-kyan. The first component of this name (kol) is similar with the first component of name Hulbuk (hul), and the second component of the name Nazkul (kul) means ‘‘lake’‘ in the Türkic language [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 176].
The etymology of the city Tamliyat [al-Istakhri, p. 276, 297, 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 447, 460, 476, 518; al-Moqaddasi, p. 49, 290] can be traced from the Türkic language.
The sources mention the city Kulan located between Vashdjird and Huttalan, where in 194/809-810 fighting for faith dird a famous imam Shakik al-Balkhi [Radtke, 2001, p. 44]. The name of the city Valvalidj or Varvaliz in the Tocharistan [al-Istakhri, p. 275; al-Moqaddasi, p. 346] is linked with the ethnonym Avar [Togan, 1969, p. 284].115
During the Middle Ages in the upper course of the river Vakhsh was an area called Karategin [Yakut, vol. 4, p. 1023]. This toponym can be connected both with a proper name, and with an ethnonym Karatikan 92.
92 Among the Fergana Kipchaks was recorded a clan Karatikan, and among Kirghiz was recorded a clan Karateginchi. The last, however, is the topo-ethnonym, which has arisen from the name of Karategin area [ Karatayev, 2003, p. 99]. In Kashkadarya valley is recorded a toponym Karatikan. [Nafasov, 1988, p. 246].
One of the cities in the Vakhsh province was called Livkand [al-Istakhri, p. 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 460; al-Moqaddasi, p. 49, 290], which name contains the Türkic topoformant -kand [Lurie, 2003, p. 199]. In the Huttalan is mentioned a fortress Kulab [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 12, p. 179], its name is formed from the Türkic word kul (lake) and Persian ab (water) because in an antiquity it was surrounded with bogs [Slonim, 1959, p. 344]. Supposedly the name Kulab, mentioned in the sources since the 12th century, came into common usage instead of the name Hulbuk, which in the 10th century was a Huttalan capital [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 173]. The river Barsan near the city Hulbuk was also called Ahshu, i. e. Aksu [Ibn Khordadbeh, p. 296; al-Istakhri, p. 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 518; al-Moqaddasi, p. 291], and it retained this name to the present 93.
93 Aksu is a left tributary of Kulyabdarya.
One of the cities in the Kubadian area carried a name Sakara or Sukara [al-Moqaddasi, p. 290]. In Khoresm is mentioned the toponym Su-Kara, and its translation is given as ‘‘black water’‘ [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 12, p. 86], This shows that it actually was called Kara-su. The same toponym is also mentioned in the form Sakara as was called the ferry across Amu Darya in Khoresm, located downstream of the Amul [al-Moqaddasi, p. 292].
The languages of the Pamirian nations belongs to the Iranian group of languages. However, the settlements names in the Pamir valleys have no any connection with the Iranian languages, which demonstrates their very archaic history [Edelman, 1975, p. 50-51]. The toponym Yazgulem in the Vahan is linked with the Sanskrit roots, and explained as the ‘‘country of Ases’‘. However, it is deemed to be of not old Indian or Pre-Indo-Arian origin, and is one of the most ancient in the Pamir [Pahalina, 1976, p. 179]. In the Vahan on the border with Kashmir in the 9th century are mentioned Hakan mountains [Mihailova, 1951, p. 17] and Samarkandak settlement [Hudud al-Alam, p. 121]. In the 10th century the city Yabgukat, mentioned in the Sako-Hotan guidebook of the 10th century, was a capital of the Vahan and all the Pamir [Bernshtam, 1952, p. 281, 283].
The name of the Pamir mountains comes from the Türkic word meaning the ‘‘summer pasture’‘ [Iskandarov, 1983, p. 11]. In the western foothills of the Pamir, between Vashgird and Rasht during the Middle Ages was a mountain area Kumed (Kumad, Kumid or Kamid) [Ibn Rusteh, p. 92; al-Jakubi, p. 290], which is identified with the ‘‘highland of Komeds’‘ (Comedae), recorded on the Ptolemy map [Tabulae Georaphicae], and with the possession Kü-mi-to mentioned in the Qian Tszan notes [Bartold, 1963, p. 120]. In the 10th century there lived the Türkic tribes Kumidji and Kandjina [Hudud al-Alam, p. 120; al-Moqaddasi, p. 283]. During the Middle Ages on the road from Vashgird to Rasht was a city Ilak [al-Istakhri, p. 340; Ibn Haukal, p. 519; al-Istahri, p. 39], which name preserved until present: this is the name of the river flowing near Fayzabad and discharging in the Kafirnigan, and on the end of the 19th century map in the district northwest of Fajzabad, between Fajzabad and Ob-i Garm is shown Ilak-dara [Bartold, 1963 ibid, p. 121], located south of Dushanbe [Stavisky, 1977, p. 58]. The name Ilak comes from the Türkic word ailak or yailak (summer pasture) [Karaev, 1987, p. 116], or a Türkic hydronym meaning ‘‘quiet, clear river’‘ [Boboyorov, 2003, p. 112]. To this day the names of the Türkic origin constitute a significant part of the Pamir microtoponyms [Dodyhudoev, 1975, p. 41-43, 64, 84-86]. Near the Vakhsh is mentioned a place Huzar, which name is formed from the geographical term huzar (cataract of the river) [Murzaev, 1957, p. 245; Nafasov, 1988, p. 9], which corroborates the evidence from Yakut [Yakut, vol. 2, p. 432]. The city called Hablyk was a capital of the mountain area located close to the Shugnan in the Pamir mountains [al-Biruni, 1963, p. 78].
In the medieval sources in the Kubadijan area is mentioned the city Kuz, Yuz or Yun, which main wealth was salt [al-Jakubi, p. 289; al-Istakhri, p. 298; Ibn Haukal, p. 478; Hudud al-Alam, p. 109; al-Moqaddasi, p. 290]. All these names should be read as Tuz, which in Türkic means ‘‘salt’‘, and the city was located in the place of the present city Shaartuz (Shahr-i Tuz) [Goibov, 1989, p. 29]. In the toponymy with this term are called the salty soils, salty lakes, rivulets and springs producing mineral water [Murzaev, 1984, p. 562]. The Türkic word tuz also has meanings of ‘‘clan’‘, ‘‘tribe’‘ and ‘‘plain’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 314; vol. 3, p. 135]. On the right bank of the Amu Darya across from Zamm was a district Kurdar (Kardar) with a center in the city Ahsisak (Hasasak) [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 173; at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1513]. The name Kardar also had the city of Türks located in the lower course of the Syr-Darya. The name of the city Termiz (Tarmiz), has probably the same genesis as the city Termiz (Tabriz). It was asserted that these both names could be formed from the ethnonym a Tabur/Tabor [Nafasov, 1988, p. 175], recorded among the Kirghiz Kipchaks [Karatayev, 2003, p. 172] (Tabor = waggon-train is a widely spread Slavic/Russian loanword, like a tabor of Yan Gus/Yan Jijka revolt of “Taborites” in the 15th century Moravia - Translator’s Note).
The city Farhar in the Southern Tocharistan in the medieval Persian dictionaries is called ‘‘city in Turkestan’‘ [Baevsky, 1980, p. 88; Baevsky, 1984. p. 221]. In Tocharistan during the Middle Ages are mentioned city Kundaram [al-Idrisi, vol. 4, p. 479] and district Barmahan [Ibn Hordadbeh, p. 68]. In the Baktrian documents of 8 the century is mentioned a settlement Bunchuklig in Tocharistan [Sims-Williams, 2000, p. 94-95].
During the Middle Ages in the Southern Tocharistan is mentioned a city Iskimisht (or Sikimisht) with an extensive district (nahiya) [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1219, 1223; al-Istakhri, p. 275; Ibn Haukal, p. 447; al-Moqaddasi, p. 296; Hudud al-Alam, p. 109], with the Türkic word eski ‘‘old” 94. This city, located in a wide valley in the headwaters of the river Aksarai, retained till now its name in the form the Ishkamish, and the main part of its population is the Uzbeks [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 277]. The administrative centre of the district Iskimisht was the city Shiyan [al-Moqaddasi, p. 303], which in the 12th century is mentioned in the form Shal as a settlement in the Balkh province [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 261]. Shal retained its name in the form Chal till now [Kushkeki, p. 82]. The various forms of this toponym (Shiyan, Shal, Chal) allow to trace it to the Türkic ethnonym Chigal 95 (also spelled Cihil, Chigil - Translator’s Note). The name of the city Sakalkand (Sikilkand) in the Tocharistan [Hudud al-Alam, p. 109] contains the Türkic topoformant -kand, and the name of the city Valvalidj or Varvaliz [al-Istakhri, p. 275; al-Moqaddasi, p. 346; Hudud al-Alam, p. 109] is linked with the ethnonym Avar [Togan, 1969, p. 284].
94 In the same way the
name of the city Iskifagn (Sakifagn) in the Southern Sogd is formed
from the Türkic word iski (old) and the Sogdian fagn
(temple) (see above).
The capital of the Djuzdjan (Guzganan) area the city Yahudiyya (Yahud, Djuz, Juz are dialectal variations for Jews, equivalent to Jewzdjan, Jewzgagan province, and Jewiyya city - Translator’s Note), before it was renamed to Maimana, was for some time also called with a Türkic word Nakamish [Ibn Haukal, p. 442], which like Ilamish and Zandaramish has the Türkic ending -mish.
In the Guzganan area along the road from Talikan to Faryab was a settlement Argu or Argin, the name formed from the Türkic ethnonym Argu (Argin) [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 32; Kodama, p. 210; al-Istakhri, p. 286; Hudud al-Alam, p. 108; Arabian anonym, p. 218à, 2576]. Among common people it was also called Karagu [Muhtarov, 1987, p. 206] meaning ‘‘watchtower’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 260]. The Türkic word Argu also has a meaning ‘‘gorge valley’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 148; Boboyorov, 2005, p. 129].
119On the road from Faryab to Talikan during the Middle Ages is mentioned a settlement Kaskhan [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 32; Kodama, p. 210], in which name is observed the Türkic title Khan. The city Jumgan (Jamgan), which during the Middle Ages was a capital of the Badahshan, also had a Türkic name Djuzun [Kushkeki, p. 101]. In the Badahshan is mentioned a city Yaftal [al-Samani, f. 601 R; Yakut, vol. 4, p. 1023], which name is linked with an ethnonym Yaftal or Ephtal. During the Middle Ages in the Guzganan is mentioned a city Shaburkan or Shaburgan [al-Istakhri, p. 271, 286] which name was probably connected with the name of the Sasanid king Shapur. However, the name of this city is also mentioned in the form Ushburkan [al-Idrisi, vol. 4, p. 478] and Shiburgan [Nasir-i Husrau, p. 205], and it retained its name till now in the form Shiburgan and Shibirgan [Ahmedov, 1982, p. 43] which makes such etymology suspicious [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 333]. The name of this city can also be connected with the ethnonym Chiburgan/ Chuburgan 96. At the end of the 19th century its name was pronounced in the form Shibir-Khan [Collection, SPb. , 1885, p. 261].
96 The Fergana and Kashkadarya valleys have toponyms connected with ethnonym Chiburgan/ Chuburgan. [Nafasov, 1988, p. 212).
Among the quarters of the medieval Balkh is mentioned a quarter called Turak (or Turk) [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 103]. In the Balkh province during the Middle Ages are mentioned settlements Barukan (Barukhan) [Ibn al-Fakih, p. 98] and Djabbakhan [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 171] with the names connected with the Türkic title khan. The name Djabbakhan was also connected with the title djabgu or djabbuya, which had the Karluk rulers of the Tocharistan 97. The name of the settlement Mandjuran in the Balkh province [Yakut, vol. 4, p. 659], was probably connected with name of Banichur, the founder of the Banichurids (Abu Davudids) dynasty, whose numerous representatives in the 9th century ruled in various cities and areas of Tocharistan [de Zambaur, 1927, p. 202], or with the Türkic name Manguchur [Boboyorov, 2005, p. 128]. In the Balkh province is mentioned a settlement Mandjur or Mandjuran (with variations Mayhuvaran, Hauran), made with the Türkic title djur (chur) [Baihaki, p. 237; Yakut, vol. 4, p. 659; as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 165]. Possibly, this name reflects the Türkic name Bayaichur. In that case, this settlement could be the appanage of the Banichurids.
97 In Pehlevi texts one of the Türkic rulers is called Yabbu-Hakan. (Markwart, "Provincial Capitals", Rome, 1931, p. 10).
120In the Balkh province during the Middle Ages are mentioned settlement Dastadjird Djamukiyan [as Samani, vol. 5, p. 309; Yakut, vol. 2, p. 573] and the bridge Pul-i Djamukiyan [Nasyr-i Husrau, p. 205]. In the at-Tabari composition in connection with the events in the beginning of the 8th century, are mentioned ‘‘people of house Djamukiyan’‘ (ahl bayt Djamukiyan), belonging to the upper Türkic nobility [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1613]. ‘‘Djamuk’‘ or ‘‘Chamuk’‘ is the name of an ancient Türkic clan which was a part of the Tocharistan settled population. The Chinese sources mentioned these people in the form chu-mu-gen [Smirnova, 1971, p. 64]. The same ethnonym is in the composite name of the ruler of the Basaran (Basar) mountain area in the Northern Tocharistan, and in the name of the Panch (Pendjikent) ruler [Smirnova, 1981, p. 46-47]. Possibly, this Türkic clan also owned all these lands during the Early Middle Age epoch.
In the Balkh province is also mentioned a settlement Adjma, near which in the 287/900 happened a decisive battle between the Saffarids and Samanids armies [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 7, p. 165]. In that name is an ending -ma that allows to conjecture its Türkic origin. In the Balkh province is mentioned a settlement Tim [Yakut, vol. I, p. 908], which name comes from the Chinese word t'em ‘‘hotel’‘. In the late sources in the Balkh province is mentioned a settlement Musa-tarhan [Salahetdinova, 1970, p. 225], which name, like the title tarkhan itself, probably goes back to the Early Middle Age epoch.
During the Middle Ages in the Tocharistan were mints called Haladjistan, Jangi-bazar, Jangi-Shahr and Jangi-Hisar [von Zambaur, 1968, p. 112, 274]. In the Badahshan in the 10th century functioned a mint Zeibak [Djaparidze, 1984, p. 55].
The city Gazna was also called Gaznin or Gazak [Hudud al-Alam, p. 111]. In the area Gazna province is mentioned location Dasht-i Chaugan [Baihaki, p. 221], which name is connected with the traditional horse game chaugan 98, widely spread among Türks. On the road from Gazna to Teginabad was a rabat Djarmak [Baihaki, p. 76, 840]. The city with the same name is mentioned in the description of the Tokuz-Oguz country [al-Idrisi, vol. 4, p. 510].
98 Chavgan is the game of horsemen reminding polo (ball hockey).
Kabulistan, where prior to the Arab conquest ruled the Türkic Kabul-shakh, was also called Kayabish, after the name of the nearby mountains [Biruni, 1963, p. 129]. There was a mountain called Bugra from which, according to a legend, came out the progenitor ancestor Bars-Tegin of the Türkic rulers in Kabul [Biruni, 1963, p. 350; al-Biruni, 1963, p. 27]. In the Southern Tocharistan the city Saul [Hudud al-Alam, p. 91], which name can be connected with the Türkic title-name Sul (Saul) is mentioned. On the road from the Kabul to Gazna were a city Balak [Baihaki, p. 330, 333, 338, 343] and location Pul-i Humar-Tegin [Baihaki, p. 330]. In the Gur area was a city Dargash, pepled by the Türks of a tribe Haladj [al-Idrisi, vol. 4, p. 467].
During the Middle Ages the Khurasan, like Fergana and Khoresm, was called a ‘‘gate to Turkestan’‘ [Hudud al-Alam, p. 102], and Michael the Syrian (12th century) called Margiana a center of Turkestan, i. e. of the Türkic Kaganate [Mokrynin, 2004, p. 69]. The Assyrian sources record that already in end of the 5th - the beginning of the 6th centuries the Türks possessed the Khurasan Margiana (Merv) lands [Husseinov, 1960, p. 49]. According to the Armenian sources, during the rule of the Sasanid king Kosrau 99 ‘‘the Verkan’country” (Djurdjan) and Sagastan (Seistan) belonged to the Turkastan country [Ter-Mkrtichyan, 1985, p. 51].
99 I. e. Sasanid king Hosrow I Anushirvan (ruled in 531 - 578).
The pre-Islamic Türkic rulers of Khurasan minted coins known as the coins of the ‘‘Iranian Huns’‘ [Nikitin, 1986, p. 82 - 88]. In the Arabic sources are mentioned Türkic rulers of the Kuhistan, Gur, Nishapur, Tus, Tabaristan, Herat, Badgis, Bushandj, Faryab, etc. [at-Tabari, History, pp. 27, 41, 93, 104, 109, 115, 119, 127 - 131]. Therefore during the Middle Ages the Türkic toponyms should constitute there a significant layer.
The toponym Parthia has etymology from the Türkic ethnonym Pard/Bard, which served as the endoethnonym of the Kama Bulgars and one of the Tatar branches. This ancient ethnonym was preserved until present in the Kama toponyms, the settlement Bardym/Partym in the Perm area [Zakiyev, 2002, p. 425-432]. During the Middle Ages in the Azerbaijan is mentioned a city Bard [Firdousi, 1952, p. 22] or Bardaa [Masoudi, vol. 2, p. 74, 75; as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 137-138].The citation of some toponyms (in the Arabic sources - Translator’s Note) in the Merv province is also followed by their names in Farsi, and that indicates that the first forms were Türkified forms of these names. So, the settlement Andak (Andaq) was called Andak in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 359], settlement Djayasar was called Sarkiyara in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 403], settlement Dizak (Dizaq) was called Diza (Dizah) and Dizak in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 307], settlement Ibrinak was called Ibrina in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 117], settlement Darvazak was called Darvaza-i Masardjistan in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 11; vol. 5, p. 302], settlement Daridjak was called Djaridja in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 304], settlement Shafsak was called Shabsa in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 257].
122During the Middle Ages in Khurasan are mentioned the city Kalar [Hudud al-Alam, p. 107] and Takinabad [Gardizi, p. 56; al-Idrisi, vol. 4, p. 468; Ibn al-Asir, vol. 12, p. 116], fortress Sardjakhan [Baihaki, p. 300, 858] and district Hadakhan [Baihaki, p. 720]. In the Merv province are mentioned settlements Shavval [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 404] and Bahdjarman [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 102], and also settlement Djurabad [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 213] 99, which name can be connected with the ancient Türkic title or name chur. The name of the settlement Turkan in the Merv province [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 42] is the Persian rendition of the plural form of the ethnonym Turk. During the Middle Ages in the Merv vicinity was the mint named Turkan [von Zambaur, 1968, p. 87]. In the Merv are mentioned streets Karankali [as-Samani, vol. 10, p. 494] and Barazkan [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 120], and in the Merv province are mentioned settlements Ankulkan [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 374], Banirkan [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 316], Buzmakan [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 148, 197], Gulkan [as-Samani, vol. 9, p. 192], Danukan [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 302; vol. 6, p. 211], Djulhabakan [as-Samani, vol. 10, p. 455], Djundafarkan [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 317], Durbikan [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 295], Ifshirkan [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 330]. In the Khurasan was a small city Dandanakan [Hudud al-Alam, p. 105], and also a city Katun where excellent horses were bred [Hudud al-Alam, p. 104]. During the Middle Ages in Iran is mentioned a city Kirman [as-Samani, vol. 10, p. 401], which is Türkic word kirman (fortress, city) [Murzaev, 1984, p. 271] (and the Kirman province - Translator’s Note). On the eastern borders of the Tus province was a steppe called Turuk [Nizami, p. 71], which could be formed from the ethnonym Turuk [Zakiyev, 2002, p. 425, 430], or from a Türkic word turuk, meaning ‘‘luck” 100 or ‘‘nomadic camp” [Murzaev, 1984, p. 568]. The name of the city Baihak in the Khurasan [at-Tabari, ser. I, p. 2888; ser. II, p. 1765, 1772] is formed with the Türkic diminutive affix -ath. In the Merv is also mentioned a bazar called Djaubak [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 346], and in the Merv province are mentioned settlements Bashbak [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 223; vol. 7, p. 441], Butak [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 324], Bushvazak [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 232], Dizak [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 307], Ibrinak [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 117], Habak [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 36] and Harak [al-Istakhri, p. 263, 285; Ibn Haukal, p. 429, 437; as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 90]. In the Serakhs province are mentioned settlements Zagul [as-Samani, vol. 6, p. 221], Zandahan [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 23; vol. 6, p. 311], Adjinkan [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 96], Bivakan [as-Samani, ò. 2, p. 379], Kutankan [as-Samani, vol. 10, p. 187], Surfukan [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 71] and Salmakan [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 110], and in Nis district is mentioned a settlement Sharmakan [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 323].
99 In the Isfarain area is also mentioned a settlement Djurbek
(as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 354), and in the northwest of Iran is also
mentioned a settlement Sul or Chul, which name is a dialectal form
of the Türkicname Chur.
123In the Serakhs province is mentioned a settlement Andukan [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 364], the name of which by analogy with the same name city in the Fergana can have Türkic language etymology [Turgunov, 1987, p. 130-136; Muhammadjonov, 2002, p. 23]. The name of the Badgis (Badgiz, Baigiz) area, located between Herat and Serahs [at-Tabari, ser. I, p. 2904; ser. II, p. 79, 1129, 1184; Hudud al-Alam, p. 104], also probably has a Türkic origin and means ‘‘rural”, ‘‘pastoral” [Budagov, 1869, vol. 1, p. 252]. Badgis was famous for its great pastures, the best in Khurasan [Nizami, p. 61]. The ruler of this area a Türk by the name Nizak-Tarhan, who in the 87/705-706 headed an anti-Arab revolt of the Tocharistan peoples [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1184-1226].
During the Middle Ages is mentioned a desert Kargas-kuh located to the east from Djurdjan [Hudud al-Alam, p. 102]. On the border of Djurdjan and Tabaristan was a settlement Baisan belonging to a Türkic ruler of Djurdjan Sul-Tegin [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1323, 1327, 1328]. In its name, like in the name Baisun, are the Türkic roots bai and sin, meaning a ‘‘sacred mountain”. In the Hindukush mountains on the road to Herat in the Middle Ages is mentioned a settlement Khara [al-Moqaddasi, p. 348]. On the road from the Amul to Merv was a rabat with the name Bars (Baris) [al-Moqaddasi, p. 348], the name of which is formed from the Türkic name Bars (Baris).124
All errors are mine.
Introduction · Physico-geographical toponyms · Types of Türkic toponyms · Northern Turkestan · Central Turkestan · Southern Turkestan · Literature · Ethnonym Index
Bisebaev A.I. Ancient Türkic toponymy
Budagov Budag Türkic Toponyms of Eurasia
Drozdov Yu. N. Türkic-lingual Period Of European History