Introduction · Physico-geographical toponyms · Types of Türkic toponyms · Northern Turkestan · Central Turkestan · Southern Turkestan · Literature · Ethnonym Index
Windows 1251 for Cyrillics
Shamsiddin Sirojiddin ogly Kamoliddin
ANCIENT TÜRKIC TOPONYMS OF THE MIDDLE ASIA
Tashkent, Shark, 2006, ISBN 978-9943-00-003-2
Editor-in-chief Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Mirsodik Ishokov
© Sh. S. Kamoliddin, 2006
© Main edition IPAK ‘‘Shark’‘, 2006
2010 edition: ISBN 10: 3838398289 / 3-8383-9828-9 ISBN 13: 9783838398280
TYPES OF TÜRKIC TOPONYMS
The names of many settlements recorded in the medieval sources come from ethnonyms. Sampling of the names of the cities derived from the Türkic ethnonyms are Chigilkant, Chigil-balyk [DTS, p. 145], and Uigur [Mustawfi, p. 10, 256, 260] in East Turkestan, and Argu, Yagma, Chigil, Barshan (Barsgan), Kimak in the Jety-su area [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 65, 66, 70, 76, 78, 80, 94, 105, 110, 112, 114, 126, 134, 139, 162, 308, 374, 148, 411; vol. 2, p. 53, 54, 64, 71, 85, 131; vol. 3, p. 19, 23, 41, 424, 244, 348, 378; as-Sam'ani, vol. 3, p. 276; Baevsky, 1980, p. 85, 87]. In the Aral area are mentioned settlements Tatars [Mustawfi, p. 257] and Turkman-deh [Mustawfi, p. 183]. In the Persian sources are mentioned the countries Kimak and Halluh, and areas Saklab, Haital, Hafchak, Khirkhiz and Hita, the city Hutan in Turkestan [Baevsky, 1980, p. 86-88; Nadjib, p. 12à, 176, 196]. Türks also called the Talas city Altun Argu ulush (Altun Aryu ulus) [DTS, p. 40]. The name of the Azgish district [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 122] in Jety-su is connected with ethnonym Ezgish or Ezkish (Oz-gish) [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 122]. The name of the city Hakan -al-Hazladjiia to the east from Akhsikat, thought to be in the Ili river basin [Karaev, 1973, p. 36], is connected with an ethnonym Hazladj. Yakut mentions city Kushan in the country of Tokuz-Oguz Türks [Yakut, vol. 4, p. 320]. The same source mentioned two cities, Djamalkat (Djumulkat) and Djamlikat [Hudud al-Alam, p. 94, 95; Hudud al-Alam, p. 47], their names are formed from the Türkic ethnonym Djumul [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 64; Lurie, 2003, p. 195]. In the country Tukhs (Tukhsi) are recorded two settlements Lazina and Farahiia, which received their names from the names of two clans of a tribe Tuji [Hudud al-Alam, p. 99], and in the country Kimak is recorded area Andar az Kifchak [Hudud al-Alam, p. 100].
The name of the city Chinanchkat or Chinanchkand (Ĉyn'nanŝ) [al-Istakhri, p. 328; Hudud al-Alam, p. 47; al-Idrisi, p. 52] in the Chach area has etymology as ‘‘Chinese city’‘. The city with the same name existed in the Kucha area in East Turkestan [Lurie, 2003, p. 189].
On the Ptolemy map in the upper course of the river Yaksart on its right bank is noted ethnotoponym Caratae [Tabulae Georaphicae] that can be a latin transmission of the ethnonym Kara- at or Kara- tai, which in translation from the Türkic means ‘‘black stallion’‘ [Ahmedov, 1987, p. 60] (or Blak Mountain - Translator’s Note). The Chinese sources is mentioned the city Hü-sün, located in eastern part of the Fergana valley. Its name may be connected with an ethnonym Usun, preserved until present in the form Uyshun as the name of one of the Kazakh clans [Umurzakov, 1978, p. 54].
Names of the city Andukan in Fergana [Ibn Haukal, p. 513; as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 364] (derivative of an ethnonym Andi [Turgunov, 1987, p. 130-136]), Kuba [Ibn Hordadbeh, p. 65; Hussein-zade, 1971, p. 118-123], Osh (Ush) [Ibn Hordadbeh, p. 65] 24, Uzkand (Uzgand) or Yuzkand [Siaset-name, p. 135, 155] 25, and also the river Yabaku in Fergana valley are also formed from the Türkic ethnonyms [Ibn Hordadbeh, p. 65; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 64, 66, 71, 323, 342, 373; vol. 3, p. 43].
24 The name of the city Osh is linked with the Türkic ethnonym Uch/Ush. (Umurzakov, 1978, p. 53). There is also an opinion that it derives from Enisei root us / ush/osh meaning ‘‘behind pine grove’‘, ‘‘ fenced place’‘, ‘‘city’‘. (Murzaev, 1984, p. 423).
25 Name of the city Uzkand is linked with ethnonym Uz or Juz.
In the area of Bukhara on the border with Türks is recorded a settlement Aushar (Afshar) [al-Moqaddasi, p. 282], its name is formed from the Türkic ethnonym Afshar [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 89]. In Late Middle Age Bukhara is mentioned a quarter under the name Turk-i Djandi [Suhareva, 1976, p. 91-92]. According to the sources, during the Middle Ages was a settlement named al-Kariya al-Djadid, i. e. New Settlement, founded by Turkmen immigrants from Djand [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 319].
The name of Kharluh (Kharlug)-Ordu coin mint [Fedorov, 1974, p. 174, 176] in Samarkand [Fedorov, 1972, p. 358-360], is connected with an ethnonym Karluk, the city Tukhsandjkat in the Samarkand province [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 28] is from the Türkic ethnonym Tukhsi [Boboyorov, 2005, p. 126]. In the name of the quarter Varsnan or Varsanin (Varsin) in Samarkand [An-Nasafi, p. 195 (¹ 320); al-Samani, f. 596 R] and settlement Varsin in the Nasaf area [al-Samani, f. 580 R] is recorded the Türkic ethnonym Vars (Varsak/Var-Sag), with which may also be connected the origin of the toponym Varsan in Azerbaijan [Mirza-zade, 1988, p. 97-100]. The name of the city Kushaniya in the Samarkand province [Hudud al-Alam, p. 113] is connected with the ethnonym Kushan.
The name of the settlement Kadjar in the Nasaf area [as-Samani, vol. 10, p. 309] derived from the Türkic ethnonym Kadjar [Nafasov, 1988, p. 99]. The name of river Kashk (Kashkadarya) can be connected with a title ethnonym Kashka, meaning ‘‘leader of a tribe’‘ (and its Russian/Ukrainian calque “Koshevoi” - Translator’s Note) . and widely represented in the Jeti-su and Southern Siberia toponyms [Karatayev, 2003, p. 102-103]. The rustaks (districts) names Aru and Argan in the in the Kesh area [Ibn Haukal, p. 502], are probably connected with the ethnonym Argu/Argyn/Argun/Argan [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 65, 94, 114, 148, 308; vol. 2, p. 30, 54, 64, 71; vol. 3, p. 167, 184, 245, 254, 285].
The name Khoresm can also be linked to the name of the Yurük’s (Türkic) (Yurük and its phonetic variations is “Nomad” - Translator’s Note) tribe Khorzum and a clan Kherzem of the tribe Saryk [Yeremeyev, 1970, p. 139].
Per Ptolemy, on the other side of Ox on the lower course of Yaksart, on its left bank, lived Ariak people, whith name’s etymology from the Türkic word Ariyak (Nariyak), meaning ‘‘those across river’‘. That name was copied into the Greek toponym ‘‘Transoxania’‘ and Arab ‘‘Maverannahr’‘ [Popov, 1973, p. 142; Satybalov, Popov, 1956, p. 109-112]. The name of the mountain Chagyroguz [al-Istakhri, p. 304] or Djafragun [al-Idrisi, p. 220] on the bank of the Khorezm (Aral) lake, and also the river Chagirchik (Chirchik) it is connected with the Türkic ethnonym Chagirak or Chagirat [Bartold, 1963, p. 208].
The name of the Kumed area in the upper course of Amu Darya has etymology from ethnonym Kumed or Kumidji [Ibn Rosteh, p. 92; al-Jakubi, p. 290], the settlements Argu or Argin in Guzganan have etymology from the ethnonym Argu or Argin [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 32; Kodama, p. 210; al-Istakhri, p. 286; Hudud al-Alam, p. 108; Arabian Anonym, p. 218à, 2576; Muhtarov, 1987, p. 206], the cities Ordu Halach in Chaganian [Smirnova, 1981, p. 54] have etymology from the ethnonym Halach [Mamedov, 1981, p. 28-32]. The sources also mentioned toponym Bab Haladj [Mustawfi, p. 34].
The name of the Huttalan area corresponds with the name of the strongest among the Türks tribe Khuttalah, who were using foals for food [al-Bakuvi, p. 104].
The name of the Karategin the area in the upper course of the river Vakhsh [Yakut, vol. 4, p. 1023] can be connected both with a proper name, and with ethnonym Karatikan 26.
26 Among the Fergana Kipchaks was recorded the clan Karatikan, and among Kirghizes was recorded the clan KaraTeginchi. The last, however, is a topo-ethnonym that has arisen from the name of KaraTegin the area (Karatayev, 2003, p. 99) . In the Kashkadarya valley is recorded toponym Karatikan. (Nafasov, 1988, p. 246).
In the Balkh in the medieval sources is mentioned quarter under a name Turk (or Turak) [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 103].
The Arabs called Ephtalites al-Haital [al-Moqaddasi, p. 261] that gave during the Middle Ages the name to the city Yaftal in Badahshan [al-Samani, f. 601A; Yakut, vol. 4, p. 1023].
The name of the city Shiyan [al-Moqaddasi, p. 303] or ash-Shal (Chal) [as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 261] in Tocharistan, probably comes from the Türkic ethnonym Chiy-al 27.
27 The ethnonym Chiy-al was recorded among the Fergana Kipchaks. A few ethnotoponyms Chiy-al are in the Kashkadarya valley. (Nafasov, 1988, p. 209).
The name of the city Shaburkan or Shaburgan in Guzganan [al-Istakhri, p. 271, 286] can be connected with the name of the Sasanid king Shapur. However, it is also mentioned in the form Shiburgan [Nasyr-i Husrau, p. 205], which have preserved until present (Shiburgan and Shibirgan [Ahmedov, 1982, p. 43]) that Kinuts a doubt on such ethymology [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 333]. The name of this city can also be connected with an ethnonym Chiburgan/Chuburgan. 28
28 In Fergana and Kashkadarya valleys are a few toponyms connected with the name Chiburgan/Chuburgan (Nafasov, 1988, p. 212).
The names of the settlement Dastadjird Djamukiyan [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 309; Yakut, vol. 2, p. 573] and of the bridge of Pul-i Djamukiyan in the Balkh area [Nasyr-i Husrau, p. 205; Mustawfi, p. 176] are connected with the name of a noble Türkic clan Djamuk (Chamuk) [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1613], which is mentioned in the Chinese sources in the form Chu-mu-gen [Smirnova, 1971, p. 64].
The name of the city Valvalidj or Varvaliz in Tocharistan [al-Istakhri, p. 275; al-Moqaddasi, p. 346; Hudud al-Alam, p. 109], and the Varan quarter in Bukhara, are linked with ethnonym Avar [Togan, 1969, p. 284].
Toponym Parthia has etymology from the Türkic ethnonym Pard/Bard who served as a self-name of the Kama Bulgars and one of the Tatar branches. This ancient ethnonym was preserved until present in the of Kama toponyms, the settlement Bardym/Partym in the Perm area [Zakiyev, 2002, p. 425-432]. In Azerbaijan, the medieval sources mentioned the city Barda [Firdousi, 1952, p. 22] or Barda'a [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 137-138].
The name of the settlement Turkan in the Merv province [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 42] is the Persian plural form of the ethnonym Turk. During the Middle Ages in the Merv province was a coin mint with name Turkan [von Zambaur, 1968, p. 87]. In the Middle Asia are also mentioned hydronyms Turk-rud and Turkan-rud [Mustawfi, p. 222, 259]. On eastern borders of the Tus area is mentioned a steppe called Turuk [Nizami, p. 71], which name could be formed from the ethnonym Turuk [Zakiyev, 2002, p. 425, 430].
In the Merv area is mentioned a settlement Kushanshah [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1502].
Many of these and other toponyms, formed from ancient ethnonyms, preserved their names till present 29
29 For example settlements Argun, Karluk, and Khalach in Kashkadarya valley, Kipchak and Turk in Fergana valley and others (Nafasov, 1988, pp. 17,191,223, Akhunov, 1987, p. 85, 87).
Some toponyms ascend to anthroponyms, i. e. personal names of immigrants, founders or rulers of the settlements and lands, rulers of the country, and also heads of tribes and clans [Karaev, 1991, p. 130; Kamoliddin, 2004, p. 215-221; Kamoliddin, 2003, p. 45-51]. So, the city Barskhan, according to the legend, was named after one of the sons of Turk, a son of Iafas (Arabic/Persian pronounciation of Yapeth? - Translator’s Note ) [Bartold, 1963 (à), p. 38]. The name of the city Ardlankat [al-Istakhri, p. 329] in Fergana has etymology from the Türkic name Arslan [Lurie, 2003, p. 193].
In the Guzganan area on the road from Andhud to Faryab is mentioned stopover station Djubin, i. e. Chubin [al-Moqaddasi, p. 347] which name is likely connected with the name of the Sasanid commander Bahram Chubin, who fled at the end of the 6th century to the Türks in Fergana. In the Balkh area the name of the settlement Djubinabaz is also connected with the Chubin name [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 348].
The city Shu (Chu) in the north of the Middle Asia, per the legend, was named after the name of its founder, a Türkic Hakan by the name Shu [Makhpirov, 1984, p. 158]. The name of the Turkan settlement in the Merv province [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 42] is a Persian plural form of the ethnonym Turk, which in turn is ascending to the name of their supreme ancestor Turk.
The name of the Ephtalite country al-Haital, by the statements of medieval authors, was derived from the name of their legendary ancestor Ephtalite, and like the Türks [ad-Dinavari, p. 4-5; at-Tabari, ser. I, p. 211-212], they traced Ephtalite ancestory to the prophet Nuh (biblical Noah) [Yakut, bd. 4, p. 999]. The name of the Gatifar quarter in Samarkand [An-Nasafi, p. 200; as-Samani, vol. 7, p. 10; Khadr, 1967, p. 326] is linked with the name of the Ephtalite leader Gatifar, city Kadar (Kadir) in the Isfidjab area [al-Istakhri, p. 346; Ibn Haukal, p. 461, 510, 523; al-Moqaddasi, p. 273; Hudud al-Alam, p. 118] is linked with the name of Kidarit leader Kidara [Lurie, 2004, p. 155].
The name of the settlement Naukad Sava in the Nasaf area [An-Nasafi, p. 59à; as-Sam'ani, f. 571R] can be connected with the proper name Sava. The supreme Türkic Kagan, who fought against Sasanids, is called Shaba in the Arabic sources [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 40], and in the Persian sources is called Sava-shakh [Gumilev, 1969, p. 115, 132]. Sava or Shava (Sawa) is a Baktrian title meaning ‘‘king’‘ and belonging to Chol-Kagan (Shir-i Kishvar) [Harmatta, Litvinsky, 1996, p. 371; Frye, 1956, p. 122], who before becoming a supreme Kagan, was a ruler of Bukhara for 20 years [Narshahiy, p. 16-17; Frye, 1954, p. 8], and in the 588 was sent to Tocharistan and Gandhara, parts of the Türkic Kaganate [Chavannes, 1903, p. 157].
The name of the rabat Bars (Baris) in Khurasan [al-Moqaddasi, p. 348], like the settlement Barshan in the Bukhara province [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 153], the city Barskat (in the area of Shash province) [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 29] and Barshan on the bank of the Isi-kul lake [Hudud al-' Alam, p. 98], is formed from the Türkic name Bars (Baris). A military commander of Ismail ibn Ahmad the as-Samani was Bars al-Kabir, who was at first his gulyam, and then was appointed as a ruler of Djurdjan, Tabaristan and Rey [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 7, p. 209; vol. 8, p. 3]. One of the participants of the Caliph embassy to the country of Bulgar was a certain Bars (Baris) as-Saklabi [Ibn Fadlan ‘‘Travel’‘, p. 55, 72]. The ancient Türkic runiform monuments in Talas are mentioned names Bars, Kara Bars and Okul Bars [Malov, 1959, p. 92, 97, 100]. The vakfname of the Tamgach-Khan Ibrahim (11th century) is mentioned the name Bars-Tegin [Bosworth, 1968, p. 451].
The second component in the name of the settlement Naukad Hurahar (or Harahur) in the Nasaf area [as~Sam'ani, f. 571R] is linked with the name of the Ustrushana lord Khara-bugra (119/737), who was a father of Khan-Ahura, a grandfather of Kavus and great-grandfather of Haidar, known as al-Afshin [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1609, 1613, 1964; ser. III, p. 1066]. In a Türkic name Khara-bugra [Smirnova, 1971, p. 64] the word Bugra was a title of the Türkic rulers, meaning ‘‘stud camel’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 196, 397; vol. 3, p. 271].
In the Bukhara province in the 10th century is mentioned rabat Tash [al-Moqaddasi, p. 343, 345] which name can be tied with the name of the Samanid noble hadjiba Abu-l-'Abbas Husam ad-Davl Tash [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 9, p. 4, 5, 10, 11, 12; Kochnev, 1988, p. 191-205].
To the list of antropotoponyms can be also attributed the names formed with Türkic titles, like Hakan , Tarhan, Khan, Shad, Yabgu (Baigu, Djabgu), Hatun, Chur, Tegin, Tudun, Tutuk, Bek, etc. So, one of the Binkat city gates had the name Dar-i Ku-yi Hakan, from which follows that the street leading to it was called Ku-yi Hakan , i. e. Hakan’s street [al-Istahri, p. 34]. In the Vahan on the border with Kashmir in the 9th century are mentioned Hakan mountains [Mihailova, 1951, p. 17]. On the al-Idrisi map to the east from Ahsiket is shown the city Hakan al-Hazladjiya, which is identified with the capital of the ruler on the river Ili [Karaev, 1973 ibid, p. 36]. Among the toponyms mentioned in the documents of the 16-17th centuries is notable the name of the settlement Hakan in the vicinity of Andijan [Nabiev, 1960, p. 26; Materials, p. 148]. In the 15th century one of the gates of Andijan was called ‘‘Hakan’s gate’‘ [Babur-name, p. 77, 121].
The Türkic title Tegin is present in the name of the medieval area Karategin located in the upper course of the river Vakhsh [Yakut, vol. 4, p. 1023], rabat Humar-Tegin in Khoresm [Mustawfi, p. 173] and settlements Barategin [al-Istakhri, p. 299, 303, 341; al-Moqaddasi, p. 286, 288, 344] 30 and Karatakin [Ibn Haukal, p. 480] or Deh-i KaraTegin [MITT, p. 216] in Khoresm.
30 In Seistan are also mentioned settlements Djarvatakin and Karvatakin. ( as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 240).
Medieval sources mentioned in Khurasan the city Takinabad (Teginabad) [Gardizi, p. 56; Ibn al-Asir, vol. 12, p. 116]. The city in the place of the later old Kandahar also was named Teginabad [Baihaki, p. 72, 75, 76, 80, 81, 119, 122, 136, 137, 149, 162, 334, 553, 540, 840]. On the road from Kabul to Gazna was a district of Pul-i Humartegin [Baihaki, p. 330]. Uzkand was also called ‘‘Hurtegin city’‘ [Ibn Hordadbeh, p. 65]. In Jety-su are mentioned 5 settlements belonging to Bek-Tegin in which lived Christians, Zoroastrians and Sabians [Hudud al-Alam, p. 95]. Among the toponyms mentioned in the 16-17th centuries documents, are noteworthy the names of aryk (fresh water canal - Translator’s Note) Urun-Tegin and settlements Ekin-Tegin or Igen-Tegin in the vicinity of Andijan [Nabiev, 1960, p. 26; Materials, p. 148].
In the Merv province during the Middle Ages was a settlement Djurabad [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 213] 31, its name can be connected with an ancient Türkic title Djur (Chur). The name of the settlement Mandjuran [Yakut, vol. 4, p. 659] in the Balkh area can be connected with the Türkic name Banichur, an ancestor of the Banichurids (Abu Davudids) ruling dynasty, whose numerous representatives ruled in the 9th century in various cities and areas of Tocharistan. A dialect variation of this title is the word sul (saul), found in the names. So, this name had the last pre-Islamic king of Djurdjan Sul-Tegin. In Southern Tocharistan is mentioned a city called Saul [Hudud al-Alam, p. 91].
31 In the Isfara area is also mentioned the settlement Djurbek (as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 354), and in the northwest of Persia is mentioned settlement Sul or Chul, the dialectal form of Türkic name Chur.
In Huttalan in the Middle Ages was a city Rustak Bik, its lord by the name Bik was breeding thoroughbred horses [Hudud al-Alam, p. 119; Ibn Khordadbeh, p. 180]. The name of this city and extensive rustak adjoining to it is connected with the Türkic title Bek. Türks also called the city Balasagun Beklig [Hudud al-Alam, p. 117, 118; al-Istakhri, p. 331, 345; IbnHaukal, p. 383].
In the Balkh area was settlement Barukan (Baruhan) [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1206, 1472-1477, 1485, 1490, 1500; Ibn al-Fakih, p. 98; Baihaki, p. 679], in Bukhara province was settlement Barsuhan [as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 153], and on the bank of the lake Isi-kul was the city Barshan [Hudud al-Alam, p. 98], in the names of which is a Türkic title Khan. On the road from Bazda to Caliph in the Middle Ages was a rest station Balkhan [al-Moqaddasi, p. 27, 343]. The sources mention in Khoresm a district Handahan [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 10, p. 111], and also settlements Ayhan [Boboyorov, 2005, p. 128] and Shurah-Khan (Shurahan) [Baihaki, p. 825, 877].
Among Fergana cities is mentioned a city, the first part of which name could not be read, and the last is read as Khan [al-Moqaddasi, p. 48]. The name of the city Ishtihan, located in the Samarkand province [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1441], can be connected with the Türkic name Ishtihan. In Tocharistan the sources mentioned district Barmahan [Ibn Hordadbeh, p. 68], on the road from Fariab to Talikan is mentioned settlement Kas-han [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 32; Kodama, p. 210], in Khurasan is mentioned fortress Sardjahan [Baihaki, p. 300, 858], settlement Zandahan [as-Samani, vol. 5, p. 23; vol. 6, p. 311] and a location Hadahan [Baihaki, p. 720], in the Kimak country is mentioned Karkarhan province [Hudud al-Alam, p. 100].
Toponyms Djabgukat and Istabaigu (Ashbingu) in the Chach area are formed from the title Yabgu (Djabgu, Baigu) [Hudud al-Alam, p. 117, 118; al-Istakhri, p. 331, 345; Ibn Haukal, p. 383). The capital of the Vahan province and of all Pamir was the city Yabgukat, mentioned in the 10th century Sako-Hotan guidebook [Bernshtam, 1952, p. 281, 283]. Between Barshan and the basin of Tarim was a mountainb pass Yabgu [Gardizi, 1972, p. 32, 51]. The name of the settlement Djabbahan, located in the Balkh province [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 171], is also possible to connect with the Türkic title Djabgu or Djabbuya which had the Karluk rulers of Tocharistan 33. The name of the city Bagunkat [al-Istakhri, p. 330; Hudud al-Alam, p. 357] in the Shash province derived from the Türkic word Baqu, a head of a community [Lurie, 2003, p. 193].
Some toponyms are formed by means of a Türkic female title Hatun (Katun) [Dobrodomov, 1984, p. 138-143]. The names of the cities Hatunkat and Hudaynkat in the Chach area belong to them [Lurie, 2003, p. 198]. In Khurasan sources mention a small city called Katun, where excellent horses were bred [Hudud al-Alam, p. 104], in Khoresm sources mention settlement Hatun-deh [Mustawfi, p. 173], and in Turkestan sources mention the city Katun sini [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 152; Biruni, 1973, p. 459; Marvazi, p. 7]. The modern orology of the Central Tian-Shan preserved the name of the Katyn-art [Karaev, 1987, p. 106]. In the Afghani Turkestan were found ruins of a medieval fortress Takht-i Hatun [Bartold, 1971, p. 62].
The second name of the city Tashkand, Tarkan [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 414; vol. 3, p. 164], can be connected with the ancient Türkic title Tarkan (Tarqan, Tarkhanf)34, with the meaning ‘‘Exempted from tax’‘ [Murzaev, 1984, p. 547]. The name of the city Dargan in Khoresm [Gardizi, p. 91] is also possible to connect with a title Tarhan. The late sources in the Balkh province mentioned settlement Musa-tarhan [Salahetdinova, 1970, p. 225], which name, like the title tarhan, probably goes back to the Early Middle Age epoch. The name of the city Tarhanin al-Djibal is also connected with the title Tarhan [Abu Dulaf Second note, p. 45].
The name of the city Tukkat [al-Istakhri, p. 331; Ibn Haukal, p. 508, 523] in the Ilak area has etymologically comes from a Türkic title Tutuk, i. e. ‘‘Tutuk city’‘ [Lurie, 2003, p. 197]
The name of the settlement Farruhshaz [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1540] in the Samarkand province contains in the structure a Türkic title Shad (Shaz) 35.
35 Title shaz (shad) is formed from the same root as the title ihshiz (ihshid), of ancient Iranian origin, but during Early Middle Ages epoch it was mainly used among Türks
Toponym Kashga-bugra [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 402] is connected with the title Bugra, meaning’‘stud camel’‘, [DTS, p. 120].
Calques (i. e. translation, like chai/river/darya, or step/steppe/desht - Translator’s Note)
Among the conjectures about ancient Iranian name Sogd (Sugda, Suguda), literally meaning ‘‘burnt’‘, i. e. country ritually cleared by fire [Khromov, 1989, p. 89; Grantovsky, 1975, p. 85], is that it is a calque of even more ancient toponym Turan, the origin of which is linked with Enisean-Ket word tur (tul-) ‘‘clean’‘ with a suffix - en [Yaylenko, 1988, p. 132; 1990, p. 41-42], or with Ossetic sugdak ‘‘sacred’‘ [Menges, 1979, p. 132].
The name ‘‘Ma vara an-nahr’‘ is a calque of the ancient Greek name of the Middle Asia ‘‘Transoxi-ana’‘, and the last, in turn, is a calque of the Türkic ethnotoponym Ariy-ak mentioned on the Ptolemy map (from the ethnonym Ariyak, Nariyak), meaning ‘‘those across river’‘ or ‘‘that across the river’‘ [Popov, 1973, p. 142; Satybalov, Popov, 1956, p. 109-112].
Hydronym Tum(à), recorded on the Ptolemy map in the form Dumos as one of two major Yaksart tributaries [Tabulae Georaphicae], is of the Enisean-Ket origins, it has a Türkic calque Kara(darya) or Kara(su) [Yailenko, 1990, p. 40].
Chinese sources mentioned the city Chi-gu-chen in Jety-su, tentatively located on southeast bank of the lake Issyk-kul. In Chinese its name means ‘‘red valley city’‘ that matches its Türkic name Kyzyl-su. Rivers Chon-Kyzyl-su and Kichi-Kyzyl-su run into the lake [Umurzakov, 1978, p. 54; 1962, p. 109-110]. Some other place names, mentioned in the Chinese sources, are also possible to consider as calques of local names of Türkic origin. These are Je-hai (Warm sea) - Issyk-kul, Jen-hai (Salty lake) - Tuz-kul (Aral), Lin-shan (Ice mountains) - Muzart or Muztag, Chi-shan (Red mountains) - Kyzyl-tag, Bin-üy (Thousand springs) - Ming-bulak, Tsyan-tsüan (Thousand springs) - Ming-bulak, etc. [MIKK, vol. 2, p. 62; Umurzakov, 1978, p. 55].
In the Middle Ages many geographical objects and settlements of the Middle Asia carried duplicate names, Sogdian and Türkic. It demonstrates that the part of local population was Sogdian-lingual, and a part was Türkic-speaking. So, the fortress Temir Kaput (Iron Gates - Translator’s Note) was called in Chinese - Te-min-guan, in Arabic - Bab al-Hadid, and in Persian - Dar-i Ahanin; vol. he city Balasagun was also called Beklig, Kuz Ordu or Kuz Ulush, lake Issyk-kul was also called Samdjan, al-Buhaira al-Kharra and Buhairat at-Turk, the city Farab was also called Karachuk, the city Yyangikent was also called Nudjkat, Deh-i Nau and al-Kariya al-Hadisa, the city Chach was also called Tashkand and Tarkan, the district Mangyshlak was also called Siyakhkukh, lake Samdjan in the Bukhara province was also called Avaza (Sogd. Lake) and Kara- kul, settlement Ras al-kantara was also called Sar-i Pul and Kuprik-bashi, settlement Samakna was also called Beklilig, etc. [Lurie, 2001, p. 25]. The same double Sogdian-Türkic nomenclature is also observed in modern toponyms of the Middle Asia: Dju-i - Dam-aryk, Dju-i nau - Yangi-aryk, Safed-kuh - Aktag, Siyah-kuh - Karatag, Safe-dob - Aksu, Siyahob - Karasu, Deh-i nau - Yangi-kishlak, Sar-i Asiyya - Tegirman Bashi, Shahr-i Berun - Dishan-kala, Shahr-i Darun - Ichan-kala etc. [Karaev, 1988, p. 60-61; Dodyhudoev, 1975, p. 85-86; Khromov, 1975, p. 20; Khromov, 1967, p. 78].
To this category belong toponyms formed of two and more words of different origin: Türkic-Sogdian, Türkic-Persian, Arabo-Türkic, etc. So, the name of the country of Türks, Turkistan, used by ancient Iranians, is formed with the help of Pehlevi topoformant -stan, meaning ‘‘country’‘, ‘‘area’‘. The name of Sikaya-bashi bazar in Samarkand [Khadr, 1967, p. 317] is formed from the Arabian word sikaja (irrigating system) and Türkic topoformant -bashi (beginning). The name of the settlement Kabamitan in the Kashkadarya valley [Samarkand Documents, p. 67-68] is formed from the Türkic word kaba (cave) and Sogdian mitan (temple, monastery) [Lurie, 2004, p. 193]. With the help of Sogdian topoformant -kat (-kath) are formed such Türkic toponyms as Djabgukat [al-Istakhri, p. 330, 345; Ibn Haukal, p. 461, 463, 507; al-Moqaddasi, p. 264;
Hudud al-Alam, p. 117, 357] and Hatunkat [Hudud al-Alam, p. 118] in the Shash area, Tukkat [al-Istakhri, p. 331, 344; Ibn Haukal, p. 461, 508, 523; al-Moqaddasi, p. 49, 265; Ibn al-Faqih, p. 327] in the Ilak area, Ahsikat (Ahshikat) [al-Balazuri, p. 28; Ibn Haukal, p. 482, 463], Ardlankat [al-Istakhri, p. 329, 325, 343; Ibn Haukal, p. 461, 463, 503] and Kukat [Hudud al-Alam, p. 116] in Fergana, Khirkhizkat in Jety-su, Djumulkat [Hudud al-Alam, p. 47] and Irguzgukat [Hudud al-Alam, p. 95] in the Tokuz-Oguz country. The name of the Turar (Otrar) city in the lower course of Syr-Darya [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1517, 1521] is also given in the form turar-band with the Persian topoformant -band [al-Moqaddasi, p. 263].
Ancient Türkic toponyms are formed with the help of topoformants, the words from the Türkic lexicon used for designation of geographical objects or settlements. For designation of geographical water objects were used such words, as okuz, suv, tengiz, kul, Sai, for designation of mountains were used tag (dag/dagh/tau/tai/tuu/toch/tach - Translator’s Note) and art, and for deserts was used kum.
Okuz . Ancient Türks used the word okuz ‘‘river’‘ for designation of the rivers. So, Türks called Amu Darya simply Okuz because ancient Türks called any big river okuz [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 411, 469; vol. 3, p. 166, 260], the word also had a second meaning “bull’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 91; Khasanov, 1962, p. 95]. Ancient Türks called Syr-Darya Yenchu-okuz [Amanjolov, 2002, p. 153; Malov, 1951, p. 34, 41; DTS, p. 269], which means ‘‘Pearl River’‘.
In the Middle Ages the Binakat valley and city Iki-okuz, located between the deserts of Ila and Yafindj also were called Okuz [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 91]. The river, running near the city Osh in Fergana valley, was called Tavushgan-okuz [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 469]. The description of the Tokuz-Oguz country tells about the city Irguzkat, with name’s etymology from the Türkic ikki Oguz meaning ‘‘between two rivers’‘ [Lurie, 2004, p. 195]. On the bank of Aral sea is mentioned mountain Chagyroguz (Djagiragur) [al-Istakhri, p. 304; Ibn Haukal, p. 481], in the East Turkestan are mentioned rivers Ikki-okuz, Tumushgan-Oguz, Kara- Kash-okuz [al-Biruni, 1963, p. 184; Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 166], in Mongolia are mentioned rivers Orkun-uguz, Togla-uguz and Yar-uguz [Malov, 1959, p. 101, 104, 105].
This word was preserved in the name of the Uzboy dry riverbed (okuz-boy), which flowed into Caspian Sea (until ca 5th c. AD - Translator’s Note) [Murzaev, 1957, p. 255; 1984, p. 273], and also in a diminutive form ozek (okuz-ak) used for designation of small rivers, in the hydronyms the Kok-ozek, Kyzyl-ozek, Sary-ozek, etc. [Baskakov, 1969, p. 65-66; Donidze, 1969, p. 167; Karaev, 1985, p. 24]. The name of the city Uzkand (Uzgand, Ozdjand) in the Fergana valley [Hudud al-Alam, p. 116; Biruni, 1973, p. 472; Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 164], is probably also formed with topoformant okuz/uz/oz with meaning ‘‘river’‘.
Suv. For designation of small rivers the ancient Türks used also a word suv (su) ‘‘water’‘, ‘‘river’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 142], widely spread in modern toponyms also [Baskakov, 1969, p. 66]. So, the medieval sources in Turkestan rivers Azgirak suv [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 162] and Kaz-suvi [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 165], in Khoresm are mentioned Su-Kara (Kara-su), meaning ‘‘Black Water’‘ [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 12, p. 86]. The river Barsan, running near the city Hulbuk in Huttalan, was also called Ahshu, i. e. Aksu (‘‘White Water’‘) [Ibn Khordadbeh, p. 296; al-Istakhri, p. 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 518; al-Moqaddasi, p. 291], and retained its ancient name up to present 36. One of the cities in the Kubadian area had a name Sakara or Sukara [al-Moqaddasi, p. 290]. Hydronym Qara-su is also mentioned in the Byzantine sources [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 340].
Some toponyms mentioned in the Chinese sources can be viewed as calques of the local names of Türkic descent 37. So, the name of the city Chi-gu-chen, which is tentatively located on southeast bank of the lake Issyk-kul, means ‘‘red valley city’‘ which matches the Türkic name Kyzylsu. Presently, rivers Chon-Kyzylsu and Kichi-Kyzylsu [Umurzakov, 1978 run, p. 54-55; 1962, p. 109-110] flow into the lake, indicating that these names could be in use during the Early Middle Age epoch.
The word daria, widely represented in the modern hydronymy of the Middle Asia, has not Iranian etymology in its, but the basis from Altai languages with meaning ‘‘large riverbed’‘ [Ismoilov, 1987, p. 53]. The word darya (dar/ dere) as topoformant with the meaning of ‘‘river’‘, ‘‘valley’‘ is also present in Gagauz toponymycs 38 and in many other Türkic languages [Donidze, 1969, p. 166], indirectly confirming the Türkic origin of this word.
38 The ethnic history of Gagauzes passed far from the Iranian peoples, and therefore in their language Iranian loanwords are almost absent. (Dron, Kuroglo, 1989, p. 57, 64).
Tengiz. For designation of the seas the ancient Türks used a word tengiz (teŋiz) ‘‘sea’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 374]. So, in the Middle Ages in Khoresm is mentioned the lake Hyz-tengizi (Maiden sea), i. e. the Sary-kamysh lake [Biruni, 1966, p. 96; Biruni, 1973, p. 470; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 432; vol. 3, p. 172]. The lake Samdjan (Sam-khvash, Avaza, Bargin-i Farakh) in the Bukhara province was also called Dingiz [Narshahi, p. 25; Lurie, 2004, p. 192].
Kul. For designation of the lakes the ancient Türks used a word kol (kūl) ‘‘lake’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 324; vol. 3, p. 149]. So, one of the largest lakes of the Middle Asia in the Middle Ages, like today, was called Issi(k)-kul [Tugusheva, 1991, p. 218] or Isi (g)-kul [Hudud al-Alam, p. 98; Biruni, 1973, p. 473; Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 149; Nadjib, p. 86, 9à] which were copied into the Arabic al-Buhaira al-Harra (Hot lake) [Biruni, 1973, p. 473] and Chinese Je-hai (Warm lake) [Umurzakov, 1978, p. 55]. The Aral sea was called it in the Chinese sources Jen-hai, which means ‘‘salty lake’‘ 39. In the Halluh country in the Middle Ages is mentioned the lake Biy Tuzun-Ardj, which was also called Tuz-kul [Hudud al-Alam, p. 98], i. e. ‘‘salty lake’‘. Supposedly, the Türks called Aral sea Tuz-kul, from which came its Chinese scalque Jen-hai.
39 Per materials of History Ph. D. A. Hodjaev to whom we are bringing gratitude.
In the Tian-Shan mountains and other areas of the Middle Asia in the Middle Ages are mentioned lakes Ay-kul [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 149], Korung-kul [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 381], Sidin-kul [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 380], Sizin-kul [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 149], Tarin-kul [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 149], Tuz-kul [Hudud al-Alam, p. 98; Hudud al-Alam, p. 43], Yulduz-kul and Son-kul [Karaev, 1972, p. 112]. The lake Samdjan (Sam-khvash, Avaza, Bargin-i Farakh) in the Bukhara vicinity was also called Karakul [Narshahiy, p. 25; Lurie, 2004, p. 192]. The Byzantine sources mentioned lake Qara-kol [Moravcsik, 1958, 340].
In the name of the city Sikul in the Chigil country (Chigils were reportedly ancestors of Gagauzes - Translator’s Note) [Hudud al-Alam, p. 99] the word kul is also recorded. From antiquity the East Pamir was populated by Türkic tribes, therefore the majority of names for the local lakes have Türkic origin: Kara-kul , Rang-kul, Zor-kul, Shor-kul, Yashil-kul, Gas-kul, etc. [Edelman, 1975, p. 47]. It should be presumed that many of these names were also used and during the Middle Ages. The Türkic toponyms constitute a significant part (approximately 300) of the Tadjikistan’s modern toponyms [Dictionary, p. 11, 25, 56, 88]. The topoformant kol (kūl) is widely spread in the modern toponyms, along with toponyms formed from phonetically close word kol (qul) with meaning ‘‘slope’‘, ‘‘foothills’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 148] and ‘‘stream’‘, ‘‘river’‘ [Baskakov, 1969, p. 65].
Sai. For designation of small mountain rivulets with rocky stony riverbeds the ancient Türks used a word sai ‘‘rocky place’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 173] which is also frequently used in the modern geographical nomenclature with the meaning ‘‘dry riverbed’‘, ‘‘pebble’‘, ‘‘shoal’‘ [Baskakov, 1969, p. 66; Donidze, 1969, p. 166]. The name of the city Sairam (or Saryam) in the Syr-Darya basin [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 111; vol. 3, p. 191] means ‘‘shallow water’‘, ‘‘shoal’‘ [Murzaev, 1980, p. 81]. In the Tian-Shan mountains during the Middle Ages is mentioned the district Ak-Sai [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 110].
Bulak. In modern toponyms of the Middle Asia are widely use the names formed by means of the Türkic word bulak (bulaq) ‘‘natural spring’‘, ‘‘fountain’‘ [Popova, 1969, p. 150-154; Subaeva, 1961, p. 302; Donidze, 1969, p. 168]. In the 10th century describing the country of Halluh Türks is mentioned settlement Tuzun-bulag with many fields, running water and other desirables [Hudud al-Alam, p. 98]. The Byzantine sources is mentioned toponym Boarig with Türkic topoformant arik ‘‘canal’‘, ‘‘aryk’‘ [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 108]. The Chinese sources mentioned toponym Katun-bulag [Izci, 2000, p. 50].
The richest toponyms in the ancient Türkic is connected with the names of mountains, to designate which the ancient Türks used words as tag and art.
Tag. The greatest distribution in the Middle Asia have oronims with topoformant -tag (-dag) or-tau (-tuu) based on the ancient Türkic word tag ‘‘mountain’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 167]. In the modern geographical nomenclature this word is used for designation of separate mountain or a mountain ridge [Baskakov, 1969, p. 67]. The toponyms belonging this group have been recorded, for the first time, in the ancient Greek sources. Herodotus (where? s - Translator’s Note) cites a legend according to which three sons of Targitai lived in Altuntag mountains and coached in the pastures of Mastag area [Abdurahmanov, 1962, p. 49]. First of these toponyms from the Türkic words altun and tag, and means ‘‘gold mountain’‘, and the second is formed from muz and tag means ‘‘ ice mountain’‘ [Karaev, 1987, p. 105]. The toponyms Altuntag and Muztag endured until present, including the territory of the Middle Asia [Abdurahmanov, 1962, p. 49]. In the Pehlevi composition ‘‘Shahristanha-i Iran’‘ (Cities of Iran) is mentioned mountain Ek-tag (Golden Mountain) where stood headquarters of the Türkic Kagan [Pigulevskaya, 1956, p. 115]. The Byzantine sources are mentioned oronims Ek-tag and Qaz-tag [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 122, 155]. In the Kyzyl Kum desert are relic mountains Djumurtau with name formed from the ancient Türkic word djumur and topoformant -tau and means ‘‘Round Mountains’‘ [Karaev, 1987, p. 116]. In the northern Khoresm is a mountain Kubatau with name formed from the ancient Türkic word cuba and means ‘‘Flat Mountain’‘ [Karaev, 1987, p. 118]. To the same category also belongs the oronim Ala [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 110], which endured till now in the form Ala-tau.
Herodotus [4. 145] About this very time another great expedition was undertaken against Libya, on a pretext which I will relate when I have premised certain particulars. The descendants of the Argonauts in the third generation, driven out of Lemnos by the Pelasgi who carried off the Athenian women from Brauron, took ship and went to Lacedaemon, where, seating themselves on Mount Taygetum,
Among Türkic peoples Tian-Shan mountains were called Tangri-tag, meaning ‘‘heavenly mountains’‘ [Murzaev, 1962, p. 135; Milheev, 1961, p. 85, 89]. The Chinese name Tian-Shan also means ‘‘Heavenly mountains’‘ and is a calque of Türkic name Tangri-tag. Sima Quan wrote that Huns called mountains Bai-shan (i. e. Tian-Shan mountains) ‘‘Heavenly’‘, from which follows that Türkic name Tangri-tag was in the use by the ancient Huns [Khasanov, 1978, p. 137]. The name Bai-shan, like and Sjue-shan (Snow mountains), Possibly also considered as a calque the local name Karlyk-tag (Snow mountains) [Malyavkin, 1981, p. 39, 165-167, note 230-233]. The absence of the Iranian calque of name Tangri-tag allows to assume that these mountains were initially known with their Türkic name, from which subsequently was copied the Chinese name Tian-Shan.
Names of many mountains are connected with mineral deposits. So, in the medieval sources are mentioned such oronims, as Komurtag (Coal mountain) [DTS, p. 314], Demur-tag (Iron mountain) [al-Idrisi, p. 55], Altun-tag (Gold mountain) [DTS, p. 386; Karaev, 1985, p. 24], Altun-kan [DTS, p. 40; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 117; vol. 3, p. 422], Bakyrlyg-tag (Copper mountain) [DTS, p. 82], Goshun-dag (Lead mountain) [Molla-zade, 1979, p. 169], Kumushkan [Shomiy, p. 72], etc.
Art. In the medieval oronymy of the Middle Asia are recorded names of the mountain chains formed with ancient Türkic topoformant art, meaning ‘‘mountain pass’‘, ‘‘mountain top’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 78; vol. 3, p. 9], for example, Igradj-art, Yafgu-art, Badal-art, Bukach-art, Zanbi-art, Kavak-art, Kumish-art, Madjank(?)-art, Tanzag-art, Torug-art, etc. [Hudud al-Alam, p. 95; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 364, 373, 389; vol. 3, p. 39, 445]. The names with the component art exist to this day in the modern oronymy of the Central Tian-Shan, where are the names of the passes and rivers with sources originating near these passes: Ak-art, Agach-art, Apyk-art, Balyg-art, Katyn-art, Kok-art, Koruk-art, Kyzyl-art, Kug-art, Muzart, Toruk-art, etc. [Khasanov, 1962, p. 34; Karaev, 1987, p. 106; 1972, p. 111-113]. Some names meet with art are in the Pamir mountains: Vodart, Fovart, Zulum-art [Pokotilo, 1887, p. 273; Sidorov, 1975, p. 21]. The toponyms with the component art mainly survived in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Tuva, Mountain Altai and Western Kashgaria [Umurzakov, 1978, p. 56]. The same topoformant in the dialectal form -alt with meaning ‘‘foothill’‘ was preserved in the Gagauz microtoponyms [Dron, Kuroglo, 1989, p. 63]. This topoformant can also be seen in the hydronym Yaksart, one of ancient names of Syr-Darya [Nikonov, 1978, p. 101].
Kum. For designation of sandy deserts the Türks used a Chigil word kum (qum) ‘‘sand’‘ [DTS, vol. 1, p. 325]. So, during the Middle Ages are mentioned sand desert Bagram Kumi in Turkestan [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 447]. In inscription in honour of Tonyukuk are mentioned sand desert Kara- kum [Malov, 1951, p. 65] in the Aral area. The Byzantine sources is mentioned toponym Aq-qum [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 59].
Not any less rich is also the ancient Türkic terminology used for settlements, the cities, settlements, fortresses or reinforcements for which were used words balyk, ordu, kent, kurgan, kyshlag, kapug, tura, etc.
Balyk. For designation of the city in the ancient Türkic writing monuments is used the word balyk (baliq) [DTS, p. 80; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 360], also reflected in toponyms [Tolstov, 1947, p. 71-78; Esin, 1983, p. 168-207; Sinor, 1981, p. 95-102]. The names formed With the help of this lexical unit are one of the most ancient words of the geographical contents [Molla-zade, 1979, p. 161]. So, in the Byzantine sources is mentioned the city Karipaluk (kari + paluk), which in Türkic means ‘‘city of fish’‘ or ‘‘fish-city’‘ [Trubachev, 1985, p. 10-12]. The Türks named Chinese capital city Beijing (Peking) Khan-balyk [Leslie, 1982, p. 26]. In Mongolia is mentioned a city Toga-balyk [Malov, 1959, p. 104], and in Jety-su is mentioned a Chigil-balyk [DTS, p. 145]. In the 8th century Tibetan inscription from a Thousand Buddhas cave in Dun-Huan mentioned a fortress Shu-balyk, where Yol-Tangri, a ‘‘god of Türks’‘, was revered [Klyashtorny, 1981, p. 98]. During the Uigur Kaganate epoch (8-9th centuries) in the basin of the rivers Orkhon and Selenga have been established cities Ordu-balyk (Kara Balasagun) and Bai-balyk [Brief history, p. 121; Khazanov, 2004, p. 324; Haeshi, 2004, p. 127]. In the East Turkestan during the Middle Ages is also mentioned the city Yiigach-balyk [al-Karshi, p. 104]. In the 11th century in East Turkestan are mentioned cities Besh-balyk [Mustawfi, p. 257], Jan-balyk and Jani-balyk [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 136, 160]. The name of the city Chjanbao, mentioned in the Chinese sources, is reconstructed in the form Djan-balyk/Yanbalyk [MIKK, vol. 2, p. 69]. In the Uigur documents of the 10-11th centuries is mentioned a toponym Balyk kan ogry (Baliq qan ogri) [Tugusheva, 1972, p. 244]. One of the Khazar city had the name Hab-balyk (al-Madina al-Baida) [Minorsky, 1937, p. 144-145].
The name of the city Budahkat or Baduhkat in the Isfidjab province [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 204; al-Istakhri, p. 337; as-Samani, vol. 2, p. 104] is derived from the word baliq ‘‘city’‘ [Baitanaev, 2003, p. 57-58]. On the road from Kabul to Gazna is noted a city Balak [Baihaki, p. 330, 333, 338, 343] in which name is recorded the word baliq. The Byzantine sources are mentioned toponyms Balag (Balaq) and Baliq qapisi [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 85, 204]. In the modern oronymy of the Central Tian-Shan was preserved the name of the Balyg-art [Karaev, 1987, p. 106]. The name of the city Balasagun in Jety-su [al-Moqaddasi, p. 264, 175] is linked with the Mongolian word balyasun (city) [Lurie, 2004, p. 80] where also can be noted the ancient Türkic baliq. In the Uigur version of the Süan Tszan notes the city Ush (Osh) is mentioned in the form Ushar-balyk [Süan Tszan, p. 61].
Ordu. One more term for designation of a city is the word ordu, a term for the headquarters of the ruler of a nomadic tribe [Esin, 1983, p. 168-207]. The sources mention plenty toponyms formed with this word as a topoformant, like Ordu [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 145] and Kuz Ordu (Balasagun) [Kochnev, 1989, p. 144] in Jety-su, Ordu Halach in Chaganian [Smirnova, 1981, p. 54]. On the medieval Türkic coins are mentioned the names of such cities, as Ordu, Kharluh-Ordu, Il-Ordu, Kara-Ordu, Kutlug-Ordu, Kilich-Ordu [von Zambaur, 1968, bd. 1, p. 60, 111, 191, 197; Kochnev, Fedorov, 1948, p. 180; Fedorov, Rtveladze, 1972, p. 83; Fedorov, 1964, p. 111]. The coin mint Harluh Ordu, active in 423-428/1031-1037 during the Karakhanid Ali-Tegin, is located in Samarkand. There were minted silver dirhems and copper felses [Fedorov, 1972, p. 358-360]. In the vicinity of Nahshab is mentioned quarter (mahalla) al-Urdu, where was a residence of sultan Tarmashirina [Ibragimov, 1988, p. 84]. In East Turkestan is recorded toponym Ordukand [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 145]. The Byzantine sources is mentioned city Orda [Moravcsik 1958, p. 237].
Kurgan. In modern toponyms of Middle and Middle Asia are widely distributed the names formed by means of Türkic topoformant kurgan (qurgan), used with the meaning ‘‘fortress’‘, ‘‘fort’‘ [Murzaev, 1980, p. 79]. The earliest mentioning of the name of this word is the toponym Magi-kurgan, mentioned in the ancient Türkic monuments as a wintering place of Kül-Tegin army before his campaign against Oguzes [DTS, p. 335].
Tura. One more topoformant, widely used in modern toponyms, is the ancient Türkic word tura (turn) with a meaning ‘‘fortified house’‘, ‘‘fortress’‘ [Murzaev, 1980, p. 83], or ‘‘city’‘, ‘‘settlement’‘, ‘‘rest stop’‘ [Baskakov, 1969, p. 70]. This topoformant is found in the name of the medieval city Turar (Otrar) in the lower course of Syr-Darya [at-Tabari, ser. II, p. 1517, 1521; al-Moqaddasi, p. 263]. The Byzantine sources is mentioned toponym Turaq (Turax, Tirak) [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 230, 292]. In the Bukhara province is mentioned a settlement Turvaha or Turaha [as-Samani, vol. 3, p. 37; vol. 8, p. 237], which name is derived from the Türkic word turag ‘‘residence’‘ [DTS, p. 587; Boboyorov, 2005, p. 126]. Possibly, this same topoformant lies in the base of the ethnonym Tur and toponym Turan [Gulensoy, 1995, p. 50].
Kyshlag. To designate settlements in Türkic toponymy is also used the Türkic word qislag (gislag, gyslaq) ‘‘wintering place ‘‘, likewise widely spread to this day [Dodyhudoev, 1975, p. 41-42]. So, on the east bank of the Caspian Sea is mentioned the port of Guzzes Mangyshlak 19 [Biruni, 1966, p. 96; Biruni, 1973, p. 470; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 432; vol. 3, p. 172] or the city Mangyshlak [Ibn al-Asir, vol. 10, p. 111], which also had a Persian name Sijah-kuh [al-Istakhri, p. 8, 190, 218, 219].
19 In the 10th century Mangyshlak is also mentioned under Persian name Sijahkuh. [al-Istakhri, p. 8, 190, 218, 219); Biruni, 1966, p. 96; Biruni, 1973, p. 470; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 432; vol. 3, p. 172; Ibn al-Asir was called a city (Ibn al-Asir, vol. 10, p. 111).
Tam. In modern toponyms are widely spread names formed with the ancient Türkic word tam (tarn) “wall’‘, ‘‘roof’‘, ‘‘house’‘, ‘‘building’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 299; vol. 2, p. 206; vol. 3, p. 151, 172], which is dispersed in all the territory of Eurasia [Murzaev, 1980, p. 78]. In the 10th century in Jety-su is mentioned the city Tamtadj [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 28; Kodama, p. 204; al-Moqaddasi, p. 341], in which name this topoformant is recorded.
Kapug. Türks called border cities and fortresses Temir-kapug [Klyashtorny, 1964, p. 71-73] from kapyk (gate). After the Arab conquest, this name that already also had its Chinese calque, into use came its Arabic Bab al-Hadid and Persian calque Dar-i Ahanin or Darband. So, during the Middle Ages this was called the city located in the north of Azerbaijan, on the border of the Arab Caliphate with the Khazar Kaganate, and also a fortress in the Buzgala-hona gorge in the Baysun mountains, where during the Early Middle Age epoch was a border point between the Sogd and Tocharistan [Kamaliddinov, 1996, p. 122-124]. The absence of Sogdian and Baktrian names for this fortress and gorge allows to assume that this name was also used by the local Sogdian and Baktrian population.
The mountain chain running from Pamir to the Caucasus in antiquity had one name - Kabk [Ibn Khordadhbeh, p. 123, 173], which has etymology from the Türkic word kapyk (gate) because these mountains separate the Middle Asia Turan lowlands from the Iranian plateau of Hither Asia [Miziev, 1986, p. 32].
Kent. In the Middle Asia during the Early Middle Age epoch the most productive was the topoformant -kand (-kent), identical with the Sogdian topoformantom -kev (-kath) with a meaning ‘‘city’‘, ‘‘settlement’‘. In the medieval sources are mentioned a number of toponyms containing the topoformant -kand (kent) [Lurie, 2004, p. 88]. In the pre-Islamic time this topoformant was a most common model of toponyms for the settlements, and it was widely used by the Sogdian and Türkic population of the Middle Asia. After the Arab conquest the productivity of the topoformant -ked (-kath) dropped to naught, but instead of it even more actively in the formation of new toponyms started to be used its Türkic equivalent -kanz (-kent) [Khromov, 1974, p. 9]. Therefore the toponyms formed with the participation of this topoformant, mentioned in the medieval sources, should be classed as Türkic [Lurie, 2003, p. 202]. After the disappearance of the Sogdian language many toponyms with participation of -kath were replaced by -kand (-kent), which is pictured by the Türkification of the population [Lurie, 2004, p. 110]. We have bright examples of the toponymic calques. So, the medieval city of Chach (Shash) in Türkic was called Tashkand, i. e. Stone city [Biruni, 1973, p. 470, 472; Biruni, 1963, p. 271; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 414; vol. 3, p. 164], and the city al-Kariya al-Hadisa or Deh-i Hay was called in Türkic Yanikand (Yangikent), i. e. New settlement [Hudud al-Alam, p. 122; Biruni, 1973, p. 472; Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 164]. Therefore in the 11th century Mahmud Kashgari has stated that the word kand in Türkic means ‘‘city’‘ [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 164].
The names of such cities belong to the same category of toponyms, as Inchkent in Jety-su, Uzkand and Huvakand, Yukand, Biskand, Astiyakand (Yettikand) in Fergana [Hudud al-Alam, p. 116, 117; al-Istakhri, p. 347; Ibn Haukal, p. 514, 524; Biruni, 1973, p. 473; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 122, 330, 364; vol. 3, p. 164], Uzgand [Rashid ad-din, vol. 1 (2), p. 200; vol. 2, p. 170] and Sutkand in the lower course of Syr-Darya [Hudud al-Alam, p. 118; Biruni, 1973, p. 470], Tunkand in the area Ilak [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 164], Samarkand (Semizkand) in Sogd [Biruni, 1973, p. 471; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 330], Baykand (Paykand) in the Bukhara province [Hudud al-Alam, p. 113; Biruni, 1973, p. 470], Lavkand (Livkand) in the Vakhsh area [al-Istakhri, p. 339; Ibn Haukal, p. 460; Hudud al-Alam, p. 120; al-Moqaddasi, p. 49, 290], Iskilkand (Sikilkand) in Tocharistan [al-Istakhri, p. 275; 467], Ordukand, Inchkand, Yarkand, Mankand, Uzukand, Chigilkant in East Turkestan [Biruni, 1973, p. 473; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 114, 145, 329; vol. 3, p. 172, 442; DTS, p. 145], and also Khojend, Basand, etc. Tashkand sometimes was called Uzkand or Tunkand [Khasanov, 1962, p. 33]. One of Nasaf local rulers (116-119/734-737) carried a name Ashkand (Ishkand) [at-Tabari, ser. 11, p. 1542, 1584, 1585, 1597, 1598]. Possibly, his name was also connected with the name of a district. In the Sogdian documents from the mountain Mug is mentioned a settlement Hishkat or Hshikat, located in the Zarafshan headwaters [SDGM, 1963, p. 101-102]. In the Kashkadarya area is a kishlak called Ishkent [Nafasov, 1988, p. 87]. This toponym can also be compared with the name Fidjakas or Vidjkat [as-Samani, vol. 9, p. 358; Mukminova, 1966, p. 291]. In the mountains south of Balkh during the Middle Ages is mentioned a city Bashgurkand [Ibn Haukal, p. 428]. Especially many toponyms with the word -kand are in the Fergana valley.
Vashi. In the Middle Asia medieval toponyms is a number of Arab and Persian toponyms such as Ra al-kantara (beginning of the bridge), Sar-i Pul (beginning of the bridge), Sar-i Asiya (beginning of the mill), etc. There is also a Türkic calque of these names, Kuprik-bashi (in the Samarkand province). The sources do not mention a hypothetical Sogdian calque of this name (Yitk-sar) [Lurie, 2001, p. 25]. Because the Arab and Persian forms emerged only in the Islamic time, it can be recognized that the Türkic form with the word bashi was older, like in the other toponyms, and existed during the Türkic Kaganate epoch. After the Arab conquest it was copied to Arab ras (beginning) and Persian sar (beginning). In the Middle Asia the Arab names could not have superseded the local Türkic names, whereas the Türks rendered a large influence on the toponyms in the Asia Minor, where they Türkified many place names, superseding the Semitic names [Schanzlin, 1936, p. 282, 284]. Among the toponyms with topoformant -bashi during the Middle Ages is mentioned bazar Sikaya-bashi in Samarkand, which name means ‘‘beginning of the irrigation system’‘ [Khadr, 1967, p. 317]. Also are mentioned a Persian calque of this name, Sar-i Asiya [Baihaki, p. 336], and a Türkic calque Tegirman-bashi [Karaev, 1988, p. 60-61]. In the Tian-Shan mountains are mentioned a city Kochilar (Kuchkar)-bashi [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 392; Biruni, 1973, p. 473] and At-bashi [Biruni, 1973, p. 473]. The topoformant -bashi is also frequently found in the modern oronims and hydronyms with the meaning ‘‘top of mountain’‘, ‘‘upper course of’‘, ‘‘source’‘ [Baskakov, 1969, p. 67; Donidze, 1969, p. 166; Subaeva, 1961, p. 302; Superan, 1969, p. 191; Gulensoy, 1995, p. 3, 5] (exactly paralleling the English forms like headwaters, mountainhead, headquarters, etc. - Translator’s Note).
Yigach and terak. In the Türkic toponyms are frequently found topoformants yigach ‘‘tree’‘ [DTS, p. 265; Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 15] and terak (terak) ‘‘poplar’‘ [DTS, p. 553; Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 390]. To their number belong such toponyms as Ala-yigach [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 110], Bai-yigach [Kashgari, vol. 3, p. 173], Kara- yigach [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 141], Ak-terak [Kashgari, vol. 1, p. 110]. The Chinese sources mention a river Bayyan meaning ‘‘white poplar river’‘ [MIKK, vol. 2, p. 69], it can be a calque of the Türkic name Ak-terak. Byzantine sources mention toponym Agach-basli [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 55]. In the modern toponyms the term terak (terek) very frequently is found in the hydronyms [Superan, 1969, p. 191]. In the modern geographical nomenclature in the form agach it is used in combination with numerals [Baskakov, 1969, p. 70; Savin, 1969, p. 170; Gulensoy, 1995, p. 1].
In ancient Türkic toponyms of the Middle Asia a number of the names formed with the affix lig (-lig, -lik, -lug, -luq), meaning possession, endowment or belonging [DTS, p. 656]. Ethnotoponyms Jaruklug belongs to this category, Jundlug, Karluk and Charuklug, toponyms Atluk (Taraz), Atlalyg, Beklig, Iakalyg, Sablyg in Jety-su, names of cities - Hurlug in the area Isfidjab, Barchanlygkent in the lower course of Syr-Darya between Djand and Sygnak, Almalyk, Itlyg (Atlah), Namudlyk and Nekalyk in the Chach area, Arpalyg (Abarlyg) in the area Ilaka; fortresses Kargalyg and mountains Bakyrlyg-tag in East Turkestan, district Bakyrlyg close Balasaguna, settlements Almalyks in the upper part Zarafshan of a valley, the city Hablyk in Pamir mountains, settlement Bunchuklig in Southern Tocharistan and settlements Barlut in the Tokuz-Oguz country.
A close meaning has also an affix -laq (-luq, -lag, -lakh) with which were formed toponyms like Atluk (Atlah), Suvlag and Minglak in Jety-su, the name of the Ilak area, and settlement Ilak in Huttalan, settlement Arbilah in Ilak, city Mankyshlag on the bank of the Caspian Sea, city Sanglah in Turkestan, settlement Tuzun-bulag in the Halluh country, settlement Zulah in the Merv province.
There is also a reduced form of this affix -li, widely distributed in the late Middle Ages. During the pre-Mongolian time one of the city streets in Merv was called Karankali [as-Samani, vol. 10, p. 494]. An affix -la (-gla), which is a dialectal form of an affix -li [Subaeva, 1961, p. 301], also transmits the meaning of ‘‘having’‘, possessing’‘ [Savin, 1969, p. 168; Koychubaev, 1969, p. 140-146]. With its help are formed such medieval toponyms as Chagla, hydronyms Togla-uguz in Turkestan, Turla (Dnestr), Kirla (Don), Karmala, Irikla, etc.
One more group of Türkic toponyms are the names formed with the help of an affix -mish (-mush, -mash), to form absolute past time participle [DTS, p. 658]. In modern toponyms they are found in a combination with nouns [Savin, 1969, p. 171]. To this category belong such toponyms as cities Lamish or Ilamish, Zandaramish in Fergana valley, city Nakamish in Guzganan. The same affix can be observed in the name of the city Iskimisht (or Sikimisht) in Southern Tocharistan, it was preserved until present in the form Ishkamish.
Another group of toponyms is formed with an affix -chiq (-chuq, -chaq), used in diminutive meaning [DTS, p. 650-651]. To them belong ethnotoponym Kifchak (Hifchak), and also cities Barchuk in the Jety-su and Karachuk (Farab) in the middle flow of Syr-Darya, Kalashdjuk and the river Chigirchik in Chach valley, city Bandjuk in the Halluh country, settlement Djardjik in the Chaganian. This affix is also widely spread in the modern toponyms [Savin, 1969, p. 168-169]. In the Sogdian toponyms this affix is found in the form -cik [Lurie, 2004, p. 63].
The affix -aq (-uq, -iq, -q, -akh) [DTS, p. 660] also has diminutive meaning, belonging to the most ancient Pre-Indo-European language family of which some traces were preserved in the Türkic languages [Tolstova, 1978, p. 7]. In the Iranian languages this affix is used in the form -ak [Khromov, 1974, p. 16]. The affix -aq is also found in the Sogdian toponyms [Lurie, 2004, p. 58], probably, under an influence of the Türkic language. The sources give direct indications about linguistic distinctions in the use of these two affixes. So, the 12th century author as-Samani notes that the settlement Andak (Andaq) was called Andak (Andak) in Farsi [as-Samani, vol. 1, p. 359].
In the Middle Asia is known a group of toponyms form ed by the Türkic form of the affix -aq. The ethnotoponyms Badjnak, Bulak, Igrak (Ograk), Ugrak, Yamak, Yaruk, Kendjak, Kinik and Charuk, the city Barjuk and Bishbarmak-kuh mountain in the Jety-su, Darnuh, Sugnak (Sunah) and Tartuk in the Syr-Darya basin , the city Varduk and settlement Gazak in the Chach area, the city Gazak in Ustrushana, city Balak on the road from Kabul in Gazna, settlement Balankanak in the Ilak area, settlement Yugnak (Yuknak) in the Zarafshan valley, the city Hivak in Khoresm, the Aruk-Turuk pass in the Fergana valley, district Bardak and settlement Fashuk in the Bukhara province, settlement Shaishak in the vicinity of Termez, Kaidjundak quarter in Samarkand, Kavak-art pass in the mountains of the Fergana valley, the city Zejbak in Badahshan, rabat Djarmak in the Gazna area and the city Djarmak in the Tokuz-Oguz country, the city Bajhak in Khurasan, settlement Samarkandak in Vahan.
With the help of this affix are formed the names of the river Azgirak, the city Karnak, district Varak, pasture Tajzak and the city Kadah in Turkestan, the city Damurnah, Banhduh and Mastnah in the Kimak country, bazars Djaubak in Merv and Nasaf, the city Dizak in Ustrushana, settlements Bashbak, Butak, Bushvazak, Dizak, Ibrinak, Habak, Harak and Shafsak in the Merv province. The Byzantine sources mention city Artuq [Moravcsik, 1958, p. 72].
Anther form of this affix is -ig (-ag) which forms the names of fortress Temir-kapig, settlements Kayig and Azig, lakes Isig (-kul) and rivers Djayik (Djayig), settlement Ulug in the Halluh country, the city Tantabig in the Tokuz-Oguz country, the city Burag in the Kimak country.
To the Türkic toponyms also belong the names formed with an affix -ma, with the help of which are formed adjectives characterized by the result of action [DTS, p. 687]. To their number belong the names of the city Yagma in Jety-su, and settlement Adjma in the Balkh province, and the city Ahma in Turkestan. The name of Haylam district in Fergana is linked with the Türkic word haylama. With the help of this affix are formed the name of the city Sairam in the Syr-Darya basin, and toponym Sagirma. This affix is frequently found in the hydronyms [Subaeva, 1961, p. 299].
The Türkic toponyms also use an affix -ar (ir, -r, -jur), forming a participle of the absolute present, future and general time [DTS, p. 667]. To their number belong ethnotoponyms Afshar, Baiundur, Bulgar, Djuvaldar, Igdar (Igdir), Yazgir, Yuragir, Suvar, Salgur, Tugar, Tatar, Eimur and Uigur, name of the city Kadar (Kadir) in the of Syr-Darya basin, and Yamgur in Jety-su. In the Tian-Shan mountains is mentioned the city Kuchilar (Kuchkar) Bashi, in the vicinity of Khoresm is mentioned city Kurdar (Kardar), in the of Syr-Darya basin is mentioned city Turar (Otrar), in Kashkadarya valley is mentioned district Khuzar. The sources mention opposite Zamma on the right bank of Amu Darya a district Kurdar (Kardar) with city Ahsisak as its center. To this number belong the names of the city Bundur in the Garchistan, city Kalar in the Khurasan, Yamar valley, river Samur, fortress Bukur and district Shushtar in the Turkestan, city Djamgar in the Halluh country, and also the cities Bandjar and Astur in the Kimak country. In the Merv province is mentioned a settlement Djiyasar.
Some Türkic toponyms are formed with an affix -gu ( -àè, -ku) or -agi (-lagi), a participle of absolute future time producing a meaning of obligation, a possibility [DTS, p. 654]. There belong ethnotoponyms Argu and Yabaku, oronim Yafgu-art, the names of the cities Djamshulagu in the Syr-Darya basin and Istabajgu or Ashbingu in the Chach area, settlements Ardaku in Khoresm and Karagu in Guzganan, and also the Yabaku steppes, Irguzgukat location in the Tokuz-Oguz country, and the city Djinku in the Kimak country. In the Sogdian toponymy this affix (-u, -ku) is rare [Lurie, 2004, p. 59].
With the affix -gay (-kay, -qa ,-ga, -ka), which is transmitting a finite form of absolute future time [DTS, p. 651], are formed names of the settlements Alka and Tutirka, country Djabarka, river Kashka in the Kashkadarya valley, settlements Zimlika in the Bukhara vicinity, Tokurka pasture, Kara-yalga ravine, Karga fortresses, Kashga-bugra location, city Djabulka in Turkestan. The same affix is frequently found in the hydronyms with the topoformant -djilga or -yilga with a meaning “rivulet’‘ or ‘‘small river’‘ [Donidze 1969, p. 166; Dodyhudoev, 1975, p. 41].
With an affix -ki (-gi) are formed the names of the settlement Hiramki in the Tokuz-Oguz country, and settlements Darzangi and Barangi in Saganiyan, Didaki in the Kesh area, Birki mountains in Ilak, settlements Mirki in the Halluh country.
With the affix -sh (-ish, -ush, -ash), a passive voice verbal form with a meaning of co-operation [DTS, p. 663], are formed the names of the settlement Azgish in Turkestan, rivers Irtish (Ertish) in Siberia, settlements Kabush, Kayabish mountain in the Kabulistan, rivers of Gamash, and the city Hanavush in the Kimak country, and location Abuksha in Khoresm.
With the affix -as are formed toponyms Kara Kayas (Kuyas), Sablig Kayas in the Syr-Darya basin, Talas, Ulug Talas, and Kemi Talas in Jety-su, city Havas in the Ustrushana, Kargas-kuh mountains in the Khurasan, city Dargash in the Gur, settlement Alhandjas (?) in the Shash area.
With the affix -añh (-uñh) are formed ethno-toponym Halach, the names of the passes Bukach-art and Igradj-art, Tavgach country, cities Gannadj in the Shash and Tamtadj in the Jety-su, settlements Artudj in the Tokuz-Oguz country, the city Kamadjkat in the Khirkhiz country, settlement Udj in the Halluh country.
With the affix -inch (-inchu, -mchu) are formed toponyms Savindj in the East Sogd, Urganch in the Khoresm, Jafinch, Kamlanchu, Shanchu, Hamchu and Sahchu in the Turkestan. This affix could also be borrowed from the Sogdian language [Lurie, 2004, p. 72-73].
The toponyms formed with the help of the affix -chi (-ji), received a wide distribution in the Middle Asia since the 15th century [Savin, 1969, p. 169; Ernazarov, 2002, p. 10]. But it can already be noted in some toponyms of the pre-Mongolian time. To them belongs the names of the city Urganch (Urganchi) in Khoresm, Shaldji in Jety-su and, probably, settlements Darzandji and Barandji in Chaganian. The name of a well-known fabric zandanichi, produced in the Middle Ages in the settlement Zandana in the Bukhara province, also contains an affix -chi [Lurie, 2004, p. 63-64].
With the affix -gan (-qan, -kan) which, in our opinion, can be considered as a Türkified form of the ancient Iranian -gan (-jan, -kan) [Lurie, 2004, p. 74-76], are formed the names of the mountain Altunkan, the rivers Tavushgan-okuz, Kichik Kejgan, Ulug Kejgan, city Otukan in the Turkestan and Dargan, rabat Tugan, settlements Barkan, Bagirkan and Mizdahkan in Khoresm, the cities Tarkan in Shash, Barsgan in Jety-su, Andigan and Ustikan in Fergana, rustak Argan in in the Kesh area, city Shaburkan (Shiburgan) in Guzganan, streets Barazkan in Merv, settlement Sharmakan in the Nis area, settlements Adjinkan, Bivakan, Kutankan, Surfukan and Salmakan in the Serakhs area, Ankulkan, Buzmakan, Gulkan, Danukan, Dandanakan and Djul-habakan, Durbikan, Ifshirkan in the Merv province.
With the affix -man (-an) are formed the names of the settlements Turkman, Kulan in Huttalan, Hotan in Turkestan, toponyms Barman, Zarman in Khurasan, Bahdjarman in the Merv province. Probably, this affix was borrowed from the Iranian languages [Lurie, 2004, p. 68-71].
With the affix -ñhàn are formed toponyms Ashchan, Barchan and, probably, Masha (present Matcha) in the Ustrushana.
With the affix -il (-ul, -al) are formed the ethnotoponyms Chigil, Chumul, Basmil, Yasmil, Yaftal and Haital, the names of the Badal-art pass, city Abul and Amul in Khurasan, settlements Shiyal in Tocharistan, Shavval, in the Merv province and Zagul in the Serakhs province, the cities Kubal in Jety-su and Tusul, Tuthal and Baital provinces in Turkestan, rivers Badal-art, Djadgal (Djidgil) and the city Aval in Fergana, settlements Vardul, Karal and Hival in the Shash province, rivers Itil (Atil) in the Volga region, and river Kizil in Jety-su, settlement Tunal in the Halluh country, location Kumul in the Tokuz-Oguz country.
With the affix -im (-am) of an Ugrian origin [Teplyashina, 1969, p. 216-220] are formed the names of the settlements Sairam in the Syr-Darya basin and in the Kashkadarya valley, the cities Tarim and Bagram-kumi in Turkestan, rivers Ismitarim, city Kundaram in the Tocharistan.
With the affix -ut (-at, -it, -t) are formed ethnotoponyms Aramut, Baiat, Kochat, Tubut, toponyms Aramat, Kinut, Kongut, Tangut, Sabat, Salat (Shalat), Tamliyat.
With the affix -gun (-kun) are formed toponyms Balasagun and Hargun in the Jety-su, Kara-gun in the Bukhara province, hydronyms Abisgun (Caspian Sea) and Tadgun (Euphrates).
With the affix -giz (-qiz, -jiz) are formed ethnotoponyms Kirkiz (Khirkhiz), toponyms Tayiz, Taizak-tayiz, etc.
Thus, a general survey of the historical toponyms in the Middle Asia during the Early Middle Ages epoch shows that a significant portion were the Türkic toponyms, and also calques formed from the Türkic toporoots. This, in turn, demonstrates that in the first centuries of the Islam, like in the pre-Islamic time, the Türks constituted a significant part of the population in the Middle Asia.
All errors are mine.
Introduction · Physico-geographical toponyms · Types of Türkic toponyms · Northern Turkestan · Central Turkestan · Southern Turkestan · Literature · Ethnonym Index
Bisebaev A.I. Ancient Türkic toponymy
Budagov Budag Türkic Toponyms of Eurasia
Drozdov Yu. N. Türkic-lingual Period Of European History