In Russian
Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal princedoms
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Codex of Inscriptions-Euro Asiatic-Don
Alanian Etymology Notes
Alans in Pyrenees
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

Ethno-Political Divisions and Historical Notes

 <= Türkic Tamgas And Urans

Tamgas Contents

Yacenko Tamgas Contents =>




As with the signage traditions of our days, the deviations from traditional orientation of the tamga are irrelevant, like is irrelevant the orientation of a 5-point star on the US emblems, or a 6-point star of the Mogen Dovid, their significance is relayed exclusively by their form and not by the conditions of the object where they are placed. On the other hand, the relative orientation of modifier marks is significant, allowing, for example, to segregate the animals of a “right hand“ family from the “left hand“ family and other kins of the clan, and therefore the mirror images carry discerning connotations. At the same time, an “assignment“ of the tamga would be quite an aberration, like renaming “McDougall“ clan into “Stuarts“, because every member of the society has his parents, and is destined to carry their tamga to his progeny. This aspect is especially pronounced in the societies where upbringing of the youngsters is traditionally a treasured right of their grandparents.

Mini-Glossary of the Türkic ethnic names of the period

Contents Notes
Ethnographical Ethnical Tamga Ethnic Affiliation Political
Contemporary Ancient
Contemporary Tamgas of Kazakh main clans Alchyns     Türk Uly Juz - Senior Juz
  Argyns   Possibly Mongol  
  Djetyru     Türk Orta Juz - Middle Juz
  Djalair     Mongol  
  Kanly (Kangly)     Türk Kyshe Juz - Junior Juz
  Karakesek     Türk  
  Kipchaks (Kypchaks)     Türk  
  Konyrats (Konrats)     Mongol  
  Tolengut     Türk  
  Uaks     Possibly Mongol  
  Uysyns (Usuns, Wusuns) Usuns, Usüns, Wusuns Türk  


Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “,
translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990, and Kazakhstan and Sana, 1991, translation to Russian Orynbay Kulenovich Janaydarov.

Contemporary Tamgas of Kazakh main clans

In the most ancient times the Kazakh main clans had these tamgas:

Uly Juz (Senior Juz), tamga - O .
Albans' tamga the same O only with a line downwards and to the left  .
Suüdiks' tamga - O .
Botbays' - O or a circle with a plus below .
Syims' tamga - O .

Orta Juz - Middle Juz:
Konrats' tamga - Ï .
Argyns' tamga - OO .
Kangly tamga - 1 I.
Kipchaks' tamga - 11 .
Kereys' tamga - +, or X .
Namans' tamga - Ó .

When Chingiz Khan became a Great Kagan, he gave the leaders of the main clans the tamgas as a bird,  tree and other figures of the animals or objects. And then the Uly Juz (Senior Juz) received the uran (slogan, call) Salauat, the berkut (golden eagle) bird, the tree karagach, the tanba a surgi tanba or a trident.

A Konyrat by the name Sungile received the uran Konyrat, the falcon bird, the tree apple tree, and the tamga a half moon. Like this: Ñ .


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.

Uly Juz - Senior Juz ,

Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990.

All the extensive territory from the river Karatal, which runs into Balkhash or, otherwise, Sea Lake, up to the Seyhun (Syr-Darya) and Chirchik, occupy the clans Kanly (Kangly, Kangars) and Dulat. These Dulats lead their ancestry from the Chuy tribes. Their distant ancestors are Kara-Kirgizes (Kirgizes). They (Dulats) came to the western Alatau in the 150 BC. To the lands south-west of the Dulats came the Kanly (Kangars) tribes, including one of their branches, Shanyshkyly.

The most numerous clan in the Uly Juz (Senior Juz) are Dulats. It consists of the clans
Sikym, , ,
Suan, .

Alban consists of:
Kyzyl Borik,
Kîíûp Borik,
Segiz sary,

And in the upper course of the r. Ili in the north lives the clan of the ancient Uysyns, the Sary Uysyn. It consists of the clans:

Another numerous clan in the Uly Juz (Senior Juz) after the Dulat is Jalair (aka Djalair). It consists of the clans:
Aryk Tynym,

The clan Kushik, probably, is a descendant of ours Kalkaman, because exist an opinion that they are not Jalairs. The Jalair during the ancient times was a mighty and noble clan. Uniting many Türkic tribes, they formed their own state (See Zuev. Jalair is a Mongolian rendition of the Tele Uigur royal clan Yaglakar ~ yala er, the dynasts of the Uigur Kaganate, 758-843).

The clans of the Uly Juz (Senior Juz), Shapyrashty and Esti (Ysty) lived around Alma-Ata. The clans of the Syrgeli and Oshakty lived closer to Seyhun (Syr-Darya). These four clans are from the Tayfa Kanly (Kangly - Kangar) I , .

In addition, in the Uly Juz (Senior Juz) is a clan Konyrat (Konrat). It was federated earlier into the Middle Orta Juz, but because of a conflict it immigrated to the  Senior Uly Juz. In records of Abulgazi Bahadur-Khan, they descend from Konyrat, a son of Jorlyk-Mergen, a descendant of Kiyan (Türk. Hare), a son of the Mongolian Khan Elkhan (Türk. Khan of the Country).

UYSYNS  (   Saryuysyn tamga) (aka Usuns, Usüns, Wusuns, Wusüns, etc., contemporary pronunciation of their self-name is Ooy-sih-n or Ooy-sih-nih. In the Indo-Iranian -centric scientific works the Usuns are practically always promoted to carry a honorary title “Iranian-speaking“, which they never earned. The second component of their name is Sün, which is a dialectal variation of Hun. In the antique period they were a distinct branch of the Eastern Huns, see Yu. L. Zuev  Ethnic History of Usuns - Translator's Note).

The Uysyns were known to the Chinese from the 2nd century BC. Their original pasture route was northwest from the Tian-Shan mountains. A Khan of Uysyns perished in a battle with Huns. The Hun's Khan took his juvenile son to bring him up; subsequently, when he distinguished himself in the campaigns, the Hun's Khan appointed him as a Khan of his own peoples, Uysyns. To the West of the Uysyns lived Üechji (Üz. Juz, Yuechji) (i.e. just “tribes“, the generic “uz“ and its dialectal variations “ud/ut“, modified to comply with the vowel harmony rule, is used in a numerous Türkic endoethnonyms - Translator's Note) and Se (Saka). Huns and Uysyns defeated Üechji, who slid to the west, displaced Sakas, and occupied their pastures. The Uysyns occupied the plains of the present Jeti-Su. Soon the Uysynian Khan Lostso-mi with a title Gun-mo (could be Hun-Mo, with Mo being a Chinese rendering, like Mo-de for Maodun/Maotun/Mete - Translator's Note) stopped acceding to the Huns. By the description of the Chinese writer of the 7th century Shy-gu, the Uysyns had blue eyes and red beards, which, in the opinion of the Chinese, made them look like monkeys. Some take Uysyns as Türks, the others class them as Arians. Their number  was described as 120,000 families (630,000 persons). The Uysyns' history was determined by a struggle of two parties, Chinese and Hun's. In the second century AD, after a departure of the Huns, the hegemony over the nomads of the Jeti-Su and Eastern Turkestan passed first to the Senbi people (2th-4th century AD, Sen-bi = Sün-bi = Hun-bi, i.e. a branch of Huns - Translator's Note), and then to the Jujan people (4th-6th century AD, Ju-jan = Ju-Sün = Ju-Hun, i.e. another branch of Huns - Translator's Note). The Jujan dislodged Uysyns to the Tian-Shan mountains.

After that the Uysyns escaped from the Chinese historical records, and their name survived only in the name of the Ulu Juz (Senior Horde, Chinese “Great Üechji“).

In the beginning of the 7th century the peoples of the Western Türkic empire were separated into 2 groups by the river Chu: to the west of it lived Dulu, and to the east of it lived Nushibi. In the name Dulu we have the ancestors of the Dulat   , nowadays the most numerous and strongest clan of Uysyns: it is evident from the account of the the Kirgiz themselves, that the Dulat is one of the main clans of the Uysyns,  and secondly, the Dulats reside exactly in the same places where two centuries before was mentioned the name of the Uysyn.

Next to the Dulu the Chinese chronicles mention Chuban, in which name is recognized another clan of the modern Uysyns, the Suan .

For the next 5 centuries (700-1200 AD) the name of Uysyns or Dulats in the works known to us was not mentioned.

The Persian historian Rashid-ad-din (1247-1318) wrote the “History of Mongols“ from the words of the Mongols who in 1255 relocated with Hulagu-Khan to Persia. Rashid-ad-din mentions people Uyshun (pronounced Ooy-shoon), subjected to the Chagadaids. In the Uyshun we have undoubted Uysyns; nowadays one kishlak (village) in the Tashkent district, claimed by its inhabitants as consisting of Uysyns, is called Uyshun; in addition this is the way the Uzbeks and Karakirgizes (Russian moniker for Kirgizes) pronounce Uysyn. The army of Hulagu passed through the Jeti-Su in the 1253-1254, that means that at that time near the river Chu in the mountains lived Uysyns.

A well-known historian Muhamed-Haydar, the author of the “Tarihi-Rashidi“, came from a clan Dulat and was a kuregen (i.e. he was married to a princess of Chingisid blood). The 6-th ancestor of the historian, a well-known Emir Bolatchi-Dulat in the 1348 brought Tokluk-Temyr from the Kuldja district to the Issyk-Kul district, where lived Dulats or Dogolats, and proclaimed him a Khan  of the Chagatai Ulus. The famous opponent of Timur, Kamareddin, who was actually ruling the Chagatai Ulus after the death of Tokluk and Balatchi, was a brother of Balatchi. Further the history tells about Dulats Hudaydat, a nephew of Kamareddin, a son of Hudaydat Mir Muhamed, and his grandson Seid-Ali (1440).

The historian Muhamed Haydar is a cousin for both Babur and Seid-Khan (Chagataid), he took part in their wars against Uzbeks and Kazaks (Kirgiz). After the death of Seidkhan in the head of a part of Dulats, Muhamed Haydar left to Lagor to Babur, then he seized Kashemir, annexed Tibet, and died there as an independent sovereign. After the expulsion of Seidkhan from the Jeti-Su (1527-1545) the remaining Dulats (as well as other Uysyns) joined the Kazaks  (Kirgizes) (during Tairkhan and his successors). In the 1650es, under a pressure oif the Djungars, the Uysyns left toward the west, and in the 1690-1790 they lived in the Tashkent province.

One of the most famous biys of the Kirgiz people, Tolebiy Alibekov (a Dulatian, of the branch Djanys), was actually ruling the Senior Horde, he lived near Tashkent, 10 versts (versta = 1.06 km) from the Tashkent along the Chimkent road, in the Karakamys (Black Reeds) district. A drifter boy Sabalak, subsequently a famous Ablay Khan, in 1725 was shepherding the camels of Tolebiy. In the place of the present kishlak (village) Kybray lived a relative of Tolebiy, Kybray-Batyr.

In the 1723 the Kirgiz  people undergone a historical pogrom, when under a pressure of the Djungars, the Kirgizes fled in the direction of Hodjent, crossed Seyhun (Syr-daria) near the present Konnogvardia settlement, and fell in exhaustion from the famine near the lake Alka-Kol. This flight is called “Aktaban chuburundy, Alka-Kol sulama“. From there, the hungry crowd moved to Samarkand and Bukhara, and cast the settled population of Turkestan into famine. In the 1725-26th the Uysyns actively participated in a victorious attack on the Djungars, when they managed to repulse the Djungars to beyond the r. Ili. In the 1726, when the angry old men of Abulhair Sameke with a half of the Kirgiz  people went to the Russian border to break the victorious campaign, the Uysyns had to submit to the Djungars, from whom they freed in the 1757-1758. After that the Dulats controlled Tashkent, and were expelled from there in the 1798 by a coalition of the townspeople and the Kirgiz clans Kanly, Chanshkly and Ramadan, whose descendants now continue to live in the Tashkent province.


Kyshe Juz - Junior Juz

Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.
Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990


Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz) is a splinter from the Orta Middle Juz of the Alshyn clans. The major part of the Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz) make the Alshyns. Much later the famous Khan Tauke joined to them the tribes called Jetyru.

Today the Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz) is composed of three main clans:
Bayuly (pronounced Bay-ooly),

Alimuly consist of  six clans:
Karasakal (akin to Black Sakas),
Karakesek (akin to Black People),
Tort Kara (akin to Four Blacks),

Bayuly has twelve clans:
Alasha (akin to Horse, or Alashin, Motley Skewbald Horse), ,
Baybakty, , , ,
Esentemir, ,
Serkesh (akin to Yellow People),
Tana ,
Kyzyl Kurt (akin to Red Wolf), , , ,

Jetyru has seven clans:
Tabyn (akin to Horse Herd), , ,
Tama, , ,
Jagalbajly, ,

It is known that some of them are Argyn clan federated in the Middle Juz. In addition, in the Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz) is a clan Tokal-Argyn (Tokal - junior wife (Kaz)), who are the descendants of the Middle Juz clans Sarjetim and Shakshak. But within these clans are almost no clans similar in names with the clans of the Middle Juz. If it is so, I presume that the Shekty   and Shakshak is the same clan. But the Shakshak is an Argynian clan, and maybe therefore it was not included in the Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz). In the 1801 Khan Bukey with a part of the people from the Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz) crossed to the opposite side of Yaik, and formed the Bukey Khanlyk which consisted of:
Kytai from the clan Alimula,
Jappases, , , ,
Baybaktys, , , ,
Alasha (akin to Horse), , ,
Tana, , ,
Kyzylkurts (akin to Red Wolf), , , ,
Tazdars from the clan Bayuly

and sub-clans:
Tama, , ,
Tabyn (akin to Horse Herd), , ,
Kerderi ,and
Tore (Türe) , i.e. the descendants of the Khan's dynasty, of the branch Jetyru (i.e. the trident was a tamga of the Khan's dynasty of Jetyru = seven clan federation , and it was the tamga of the Dulu dynasty of the Hun's Atilla descendant Bulgarian Khan Kurbat, and from then on to the Rus ruling dynasty in the Ukraine - Translator's Note).

Bukey Khanlyk is totaling sixteen clans. Included in the number are Hodjas and Tolengits. The Nogais earlier were controlled by Torgauts, and when Torgauts left, the Nogays remained in place.

The Kazakhs of the Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz) preserved a legend, that during one Khan Alasha was a custom: a newborn with signs of alapes (leprosy) illness was taken far into the steppe and left there. And when khan himself had a child with alapes, he also took to the steppe his wife with the child and left her there with a maids of  forty girls. From them, supposedly, descended the descendants of Kirgizes (Kirgiz - kyrk kyz, i.e. “40 girls“), the Alshynys. This is not true. The Alshyns were already known in the antiquity. Chinese called them Foma (Boma?). They are from the same roots as the Yenisei Kyrgyzes. Probably, they even are their direct descendants.


In the Chinese, Arabian, Persian, Byzantian, Russian and local historians we find information about individual clans of the Senior and Middle Hordes. About Alchyns, the history is silent. Splintered sub-clans of Alchyns are found in Crimea, between the Kazan Tatars, Bashkirs, Nogays and in the Caucasus. Because the movements of large tribal groups with the seizure by the Russians of the Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1554) have almost stopped, we only can state that the breakup of the Alchyns among the different Türkic nations happened before the middle of the 16 century; so by the 16th century the Alchyns had already formed.

In fact, the puzzle offered by Alchyns is not too puzzling. The answer is laying on the surface: the semantics of the word Ala is motley, skewbald, piebald, the affix -chin/-shin makes a noun from an adjective, or an adjective from a verb, it is an ever-present morphological member in Türkic and Slavic languages. The Chinese calque is Boma 駁馬 /  驳马, Bila, and Boma-Di 駁馬氐 where 駁 / 驳 is “bo“, Wade-Giles “po“ = varicolored, 馬/马 is “ma“ = horse, 驳马 “boma“ = piebald horse. Chinese also called the Alachyn tribe by their Türkic name, Alachin, Alagchin, transcribing it Ge-lo-chji, E-lo-chji => a-la-tsie/a-la-qie.

Our knowledge about Boma/Alachins is extensive, Yu.Zuev 1960 listed a comprehensive bibliography on Boma/Alachins, and showed their tamga in Chinese rendition. The Chinese records substantially complement information collected by M.Tynyshbaev and Sh.Kudayberdy-Uly from other sources.

A precious Chinese record noted the Alachin etnological traits: Alachins are agricultural people, they plough fields with horses. Alachins have horses, but do not ride them, and use their milk for food.

The Junior Horde, which nowadays is embracing about 2/5 of all Kirgiz (i.e. Kazakh, as of before 1925 around 5-6 mln people) population, consist of Alchyns only (i.e. 2-2.5 mln people prior to 1925). The histories of some even minor Kirgizian clans begin still before the turn of our era. It should be expected that this most numerous Kirgizian clan of Alchyns also formed in the depth of the centuries. The place names and historical data allows seeking out its traces.

Northern Altai

The Kuznetsk Alatau (Türk. ala=motley +tau=mountain, Kuznetsk is a Russian colonial city) is a watershed of two r. Ob tributaries: eastern Chulym and western Tom.. One of the left tributaries of Chulym called Bersh, from which 40 versts west is a lake Berchi-Kul; 70-80 versts from them on the r. Tom are underwater bedrocks, Burish, dangerous for the vessels and rafts during high water time. 50 versts west of the Berchi-Kul begins the r. Alchedat. One of the right tributaries of the r. Katun, which runs into Ob, is called Cherkish. 100 versts north from Achinsk begin the rivers Large and Small Ket (along which in the 17th century lived Ket Ostyaks).

. Along the river Chulym and westward to the r. Tom, in the areas which include the above-mentioned r. Bersh, lake Berchi-Kul, Burish cliffs, and the r. Alchedat,  lives a Türkic tribe Kyzyl among the constituent tribes of which are the clans Ulu Achin and Kuchük Achin (Large and Small Achins); from that also came the name of the city Achinsk. The names Bersh, Berchikul, Burish resemble the name of the numerous clan Bersh which is a part of our Alchyn, the clans Ulu and Kuchük Achin also remind our Alchyn with dropped “l“. Such fallings away are also noted in the Kirgiz language, for example: they say “achy“ instead of “alchyn“ (take), “akkel“ instead of “ alyp kel “ {bring}, etc. Dropping in the word “Alchedat“ the plural ending  “t“ turns it into “Alched“, which is also close to our pronunciation of the “Alchyn“. Cherkish resembles the clan Cherkesh  ( , , ) within our Alchyns. The Ket resembles the clan Kete,  also within our Alchyns.

In these areas a few times is found the word altyn which can mean “gold“; but because some place names resemble our clans, they also can be identified with the Alchynian clan Altyn . It is significant that in these places are no names (except for the Argyn ) resembling the clans of the Ulu (Big) or Orta (Middle) Hordes, whereas all the listed names are similar with the clans of only the Kuchük (Small, Junior) Horde.

N.Pontic area (nowadays already not Russia, but Ukraine, not “Russian steppes“ but Ukrainian, which is not a “New Russia“ anymore either. The reader should be aware that the majority of the Türkic onomasticon is gone, reassigned first to Tsaritsyns and Sebastopols, and then to Stalinsks, Kirovsk, Red Bannersks, and other superpatriotic introductions. In history the history is written by the victors - from scratch - who do not expect to be caught - Translator's Note)

60 versts (versta = 1.06 km) from Kyiv along the Kiev - Poltava railroad is a station Baryshevka, and nearby a village of the same name. 210 versts along the same road is located city Romodan. 200 versts from Kiev down the Dniepr river, on the right bankt is city Cherkasy. 230 versts from Kiev by along the Kiev Moscow railroad is a station Altyn, and nearby a village Altyn. The railroad Kiev - Poltava crosses r. Sula, which has a tributary Uday. Karamzin (in the notes to the 4th volume) writes that the inhabitants of the village Ahmatovka in the Kursk province (Rylsk district) in the 13th century was inhabited by the Cherkeses (Circassians), who were called Kazaks. 70 versts south of Tula is a district city of Odoev. 240 versts from Kharkiv along the railroad Kharkov - Penza is a district city Birüch. It is known that the r. Don untill the 14th century was called Tanais, where “is“ is purely Greek ending; The Sea of Azov and Azov city had an identical name Tana. Along this river are located the cities Old Cherkassk and New Cherkassk. Across the Perekop isthmus on its eastern side lays the island Birüchiy. The confluence of the r. Kuban with the sea forms the Taman peninsula. In the Penza Province (near the borders of the Simbirsk and Nizhniy Novgorod Provinces) is a city Ramadan. In the Simbirsk province is r. Sura into which from the right flows a tributary Barysh; at the crossing with the railroad with the river is a settlement Barysh, at the mouth of the r. Barysh is located a large village Baryshovka (-evka, -ovka endings are Russian accommodations of the Türkic words - Translator's Note); 30 versts east from there begin  2 small rivers, Birüch and Dry Birüch; along the Dry Birüch is a village Birüchevka. Southwest from Saratov is a mountain Altyn: 30 - 40 versts from the citiy Enotaevska downstream Itil river is a “ Golden hill “, a translation of the Altyn-tobe. Accross Astrakhan on the right bank of Itil is an estate Tort-Ayatyn, and nearit is Birüchaya (-aya endings is Russian - Translator's Note) isthmus. The Professor Hvolson tells that in the ancient Khozaria (i.e. Khazaria) was a city Baraish. Golubovsky cites that in the 1055 “came Bolush with Kipchaks and made Vsevolod peace with them“.

In the 1095 Vladimir Monomah killed the captured Iglar, Kitan and Aklan Burchevich, i.e. the son of Burch (-evich is Slavic patronymic ending, akin to “son of“  - Translator's Note). Smirnov cites the annals under year 1232 (5 years prior to Batu's invasion), that “Purysh's son with Kipchaks has beaten all Mordva and the Rus Purgassian, and Purgas barely and closely escaped“. In the 1126 and 1174 Kipchaks attacked. Baruch. Karamzin writes, that “Torks and Berendeis were called Cherkases, and the Kazaks were too“ (Russian Torks, i.e. distorted Türks; 200 years after Karamzin, 1766-1826, Gumilev invented and advocated a Berendey theory about their descent from the Khazars, i.e their Bulgarian affiliation versus Üedji affiliation  - Translator's Note); in another place he repeats that the Kosogs are also Cherkesses (Circassians), which country in the 10th century was called Kasahia; they lived between the Black and Caspian Seas. Karamzin states that during his time the Ossets called the Cherkesses (Circassians) Kazaks (Cossacks); exactly the same also states Semenov-Tianshansky, who lists the Cherkes (Circassians) clans, and gives a sub-clan Klych; our Cherkeshes also have a sub-clan Klysh.

The listed above geographical and historical names Barash-Baraish, Baryshovka, Baruch, Birüch, Birüchevka, Birüchy, Burch, Purysh, Bolush resemble the Alchynian sub-clan Bersh ( , , , ). Uday and Odoev resemble the Aday ( ); Cherkas and Cherkassk resemble the Cherkesh  ( , , ). G.Evers posits that the city Cherkasy was founded by Circassians, (and both Caucasian Circassians and our (i.e. Kazakh) Circassians have a sub-clan Klysh; and both are called “Kazak (Cossack)“. Romodan and Ramadan copy our ramadan, and Tana is a copy of Tana; Altyn is copy of Altyn; Taman  is copy of Tama. It is notable that in the same areas do not have any place names and historical names resembling the clans of the Ulu (Senior) and Orta (Midddle) Hordes in the periods of at least before the invasion of Mongols (and even till the 14th century) except for the Kypchaks. Some differences exist in the pronunciation of the names of our sub-clans in the mentioned names, and it is known that to render precisely the Türkic words (in the Slavic/Russian languages) is impossible. Especially it is true in the annals: so, for example, they write Busurman or even Besermyan instead of Musulman (Muslim) (it is likely that the Slavs borrowed this pronunciation from the Türks themselves, or rather the term became a common word in the common Türco-Slavic language, because the Slavic languages do not have an articulated m/b transposition, while in some Türkic languages it is very pronounced  - Translator's Note) r . Avzyak or Izyabyak replaces Uzbek; Djelebek, Zenebek replaces Djanybek; Zeledin replaces Djalaleddin; Üchi replaces Djochy, Bahmet replaces Mahmud; Buzuluk replaces Buzaulyk, Saratov replaces Sarytau, Eruslan replaces Yan-Arslan, etc.

In the (Rus) annals are mentioned: visiting Vsevolod with Kipchaks Bolush (1055), attacking with Kipchaks the son of Purysh (1235)  Aklan, killed by Vladimir, and the same with the son of Burch (1095). To suggest that in the 1055 came Bolush or Burch himself, whose son was killed 40 years later, and the second son attacked 140 years after the death of his brother, is certainly impossible.

The expression ulan/oglan/ogly etc., i.e. “son“ at the Turkic peoples frequently is not literal, but in a sense of a descendant or a person descending from a tribe with such a name; so, for example, Kenesary in the songs is frequently called a son of  Ablaykhan, whereas everybody knows that he is only his grandson. Therefore I understand that with the Kipchaks (Kypchaks) came Bershes, the killed Aklan was from the clan Bersh, in 1235 with Kipchaks was attacking the clan Bersh. Further, the Arab writer Al-Ayni tells that the Egyptian Sultans (Mamelük) Beybars (1260-1279) and Kalaun (1279-1290) “were Kypchaks from the clan Brj-ogly “, and the testimony of one of them is recorded so:

Len-Pul-Stenli lists two dynasties of the Egyptian Mamelüks - “Bahri“ (the dynasty of the “river“ 1250-1390), “burdji“ (the dynasty of “fortress“ 1390-1517). The L.Budagov's dictionary translates the “berj“ in the language of the Tobolsk Tatars as strong, not fragile, and “burdj“ as a tower, a bulwark of a fortress. In the Kirgizian “bersh“ is a hardened tissue in a body. Above we saw that an underwater rock on the r. Tom is called “burish“. By the way we should note that “sh“ in the words of the eastern Türks usually becomes “dj“ of western Türks (for example, at Osmanlis). From the comparison of these words should be deduced that the name of a dynasty “burdji“ came not from the word burdj “tower“, but from the clan “Berdj“ or “Bersh“ ( , , , ). It is completely supported as true by the mentioned testimony of the Sultan that he “comes from “Brj“ or “Bersh“ of the Türkic people. Finally, in the Encyclopedic Dictionary (vol. 36) we read that in Egypt after the dynasty “Brj-ogly“ came the Mamelüks from a related clan Cherkes “Circassian“  ( , , ).

Herodotus (in the 5th century BC) mentions one people named Alazon, which was living west from the Dniepr, i.e. approximately in the same places; Strabo (1st century AD) also tells about Alazons. The names Bersh, Cherkesh, Altyn are met simultaneously in the Altai and in the N.Pontic steppes. The Altaian Achyn, Alchid converge somewhat with Alazons, and all of them remind our Alchyn. In the Greek and in other classic languages should be taken into account the abscence of the sound “ch“, which could either drop out (then the word would be Alyn), or would transform into “s“, which between two vowels sounds as “z“. Because the names Bersh and Cherkesh are equally met in the Altai and in the n.Pontic steppes, it should be deduced that these are related tribes; and at the Kirgizes they also belong to the one subgroup, the Bayuly.

The anthropological research have shown that Alchyns mixed with people of Aryan origin (i.e. the Alchyns are a Caucasoid/Mongoloid mixture - Translator's Note).

Aristov and others believed that Alchyns intermixed with Dinlins, and that the melding occurred somewhere near the Altai mountains. Above we saw that the sub-clans of the Alchyn for centuries lived side by side with the Slavs/Ruses, had cities and lived settled. We believe, that the mixture of Alchyns was not with Dinlins, but with the Ruses in the N.Pontic steppes (both views are correct, though they describe different processes at different times: the Altai Alchyns did not live for centuries with Russians, but they for centuries lived with or were themselves Dinlins. The East-European parts of Alchyns intermixed intensively with the conglomerate that was initially known as Slavs, Antes, Ruses and later Russians, and nowadays they are a part of the Southern Russian, and especially Ukrainian populace, with their own genetic signature and combined languages similar to the Franco-German language called English - Translator's Note).

Alchyns after the Mongolian invasion

In the 12th-14th centuries the main group of Alchyns, Bayuly, occupied the south and southeast of the N.Pontic steppes. Southeast from them laid other 2 groups, Karakesek and Djetyru. The above mentioned annalistic dates show that at the end of the 14th century the Alchyns were a nucleus of a semi-independent Horde of the Chingizid Nogay (Nogai), before which equally trembled the Southern Rus (at the end of the 14th century there was no Russia yet - Translator's Note), Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Serbia and even more remote Byzantium.

While the Kirgizes of the Ulu (Senior) Horde do not know about the Altyn (Golden) Horde at all, and in the Orta (Middle) Horde only Kypchaks and Argyns remember something, all the legends in epics of Alchyns tell only about the former life of the Altyn Ordu and Nogays. That the Junior Horde  was a part of the Nogays is not subject to any doubt; but this interesting and complicated subject is an object of separate research. In the Alchyns' memory were preserved the legends about Tohtamys, Edyge, about the Edyge's descendants Ysmail, Kazy, Musa, Orak, Shakh-Mamay, and Ormambet with whom Alchyns left the Nogays; still in the last century (i.e. 19th c.) the Kirgiz singers sang under accompaniment of dombras the old well-known song about endless bloody internecine fights between the Nogays that ended up in “dense forests flared up and a hundred thousand of Nogays disperced “. This song, wrote Chokan Valihanov, is a “weeping about the separation of the Nogays and Kazaks (Cossacks) that elicits tears from the old aksakals (white-bearded men) “. The well-known poet Murat Monkin, who died in the 1906, in very expressive song “Uch-Kyiyan“ also has sung of the disgraceful end of Golden Horde and of the national drama of the Nogays. In the middle of the 15th century a significant part of Alchyns were subjects of Abulhair, but left him still during his life because of the internecine fights in the family of the Edyge's descendants.

In the middle of the 16th century the Alchyns were a part of the so-called “Large Nogays“. As writes Soloviev, a part of the Nogays (our Alchyns) left to join the Kirgizes in the 1555, when Ismail, a Russian adherent, killed the brother of Jusuf. Finally, a last (more significant) group left to join the Kirgizes after the death of Ormambet (at about 1600). In only 10-20 years after that, from the east came the new enemies, Djungars, who, moving along the Siberia, in the 1613 reached Itil. Alchyns left to the southeast of Emba; they spent the 17th and the first quarter of the 18th centuries in those places. The Kalmyk debacle remained in the memory of the Alchyns, and an expression “Sauran Aynalgan“ belongs to that time.

In the liberating war of the 1725-1726 the Alchyns played an oustanding role; it is seen from the fact that their khan, the aged Abulhair, was elected a commander-in-chief of all Kirgiz forces. But during the crest of their victorious march into the heart of Dzungaria the Kirgiz khans brawled so badly that Abulhair led the Junior Horde  and Sameke with Kypchaks, Naymans and a part of Argynov to the Russian border, and there the accepted a Russian citizenship.


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.
Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990

Kanly  I , 

Kanly (Kangly, Kangars) were known to the Chinese in the 2 century BC (under a name Kangüt). The Kanly is undoubtedly a Türkic tribe, they lived on the r. Seyhun (Syr-Darya). The territories of Samarkand, Bukhara and Horesm were subordinated to the Kanlys. In the first years of our era Kanlys, united with Huns, fought against Uysyns and Chinese. In the 6th century Kanlys had four-wheel arbas (cart). In the 10th century from the Kanlys split out Selçuk (aka Seljuk , Seldjuk), a founder of the well-known Selçuk dynasty that ruled in the second half of the 12-th and in first half of the 13 centuries from the upper Seyhun (Syr-Darya) to the Asia Minor. In the beginning of the 2nd century AD a branch of the Kanly tribe called Kay-Kanly migrated to Armenia; that branch in the 13th century formed a nucleus of the future Ottoman Empire. In the 12th century the Kanly are mentioned on the banks of the r. Chu, when the Türkic Khan has asked the Karakitays for a help against the Kanly and Karlyk (aka Karluk). The main mass of the Türks, who flooded Maverennahr in the 10th century, were Kanlys: the mother of the Horezmshah Turken-Hatun (Türken-Khatun) came from Kanly. His nephew Gair-Khan, the head of the Otrar fortress, in the opinion of some people was the culpable for the invasion of Chingiskhan. The main forces of the Horezmshah against Chingiskhan consisted of Kanly.

Plano-de Carpini and Rubruk, passing through the possessions of Kanly in the middle of the 13 century, place their pastures in a lower course of the Seyhun (Syr-Darya) and Kara Kum, and from the description of the Timur campaigns we know that at the end of the 14 century they lived between Seyhun (Syr-Darya) and Talas, being a part of the Djochy (aka Djuchi, Juchi) ulus. In the beginning of the 17th century the allodial Kirgiz Khan Tursun ruled Kanlys and Katagans, who lived in the Tashkent district.

In the 1629 Esymkhan the Brave killed Tursun and ravaged his subjects Kanly and Katagans; the most part of Katagans fled beyond Seyhun (Syr-Darya) to the west, and the remaining part under a name Chanyshkly joined Kanly.

The other clans of the Great Horde (aka Uly Juz, Senior Juz) are not mentioned in the history; the batyrs and biys from the clans Sty (a typo? Esti,Ysty?)(Bolterek-Biy), Oshakty (Sanrak-batyr) were mentioned in the beginning of the 18th century (Muhamedian Tynyshbaev).


Kanly (Kangly) means “arba“ ((Türk. cart), i.e. those who use arbas. The former name was “enli“, the members of an Uigur branch, they were a strong and noble clan. The Osmanli Turks in Istanbul are too the descendants of Kanly. This clan till now is also found among the other Türkic peoples. It is also a member of the Middle Juz' Kazakhs. About the further knees of this clan I do not know anything (Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly).


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.
Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990


From the testimony of the Mongolian historian Sanan-Sesen the Konrats descend from the group of the “Great Mongols“, of the “Kok-Mongols“ generation, which is usually translated as blue Mongols. Apparently the word “Kok“ can be understood in that sense, because Chingiskhan in a letter to the Kerey Khan (Wan Khan) called Konrats, Katagans, durmens “cranes with blue paws“. But “Koê“ has also another meaning, the “sky“. Among our Konrats is a sub-clan “Koktyn Uly“, i.e. a “son of the sky“. It is a hint that the ancestor of Konrats came not from the ordinary people, like the ancestor of Chingiskhan, who was born by the widow Alan-gova (aka Alanqua) from a beam that descended at night into the yurt through a top opening. It reminds the Greek mythology, which makes kings and heroes descended from the gods; the same is noticed in the Chinese myths, who called their kings the sons of the sky. The high origin of the Konrats is visible from the fact that Chingiskhan's mother herself was a Konrat ; his first wife Borte, the mother of famous Djochy, Chagatai, Ugedei and Tole, was also from the Konrat  clan. The head of the Konrats Menleke was the first to tender the 13-year old orphan Temuchin, married his mother, i.e. married on a his own Konratian . This apparently explained why subsequently in the Chingiskhan yurt Menleke sat higher than anybody. The son of Menleke, a known shaman Kokche, was nicknamed “But-Tanri“ (pronounced Boot-Tanri), i.e. an embodiment of the God.

From the very beginning of the Chingis' activity the Konrats were on his side and participated in all his campaigns. In the 1220 at the siege of Nishapur was killed a Konrat Toguchar, married to a daughter of Chingiskhan, who after the death of her husband directed the siege, and after a capture of the city ordered to kill all of its inhabitants. The ancestors of our Konrats happened to be among the 4,000 of pure Mongols transferred to the sons of Djochy. Apparently, the Konrats were in the apportion of Shaybak (Kok Orda, Blue Horde), and settled in the lower course of Seyhun (Syr-Darya). In the 1360 Konrat  Husain-Sofy took Horesm and, though he was considered a vassal of the Altyn Orda (Golden Horde), he acted as an independent ruler of the country. In the 1371,  Timur took Khiva, and Husain-Sofy died during time the siege cities. His brother Üsuf-Sofy inherited him, and concluded a peace with Timur. After departure of Timur he mutinied against him; in the 1379 Timur again ravaged Horesm, and Üsuf died in the first battle. In the 1420 Konrats appear in the lower course of Itil (aka Volga). There the Konrat leader Haydar Murza initially supported Ulu-Muhamed; then he switched to the Kichi-Muhamed side, and participated in the last battle, when Ulu-Muhamed fled to the Russian city of Belev. Haydar Myrza had 3 tumens (aka tümens) (30,000 army) of Konrats; due to his support Seid-Ahmed, a grandson of Tohtamysh, was enthroned in the Crimea. After the death of Haydar Mirza a significant part of Konrats left to Itil (aka Volga), and from there, apparently, went to the Uzbek's Abulhair. The present (i.e. in the 1925, before the Russian Communists acted in the 1944, bloodily deporting all Türkic natives of the Crimea to Kazakhstan and Siberia) Crimean Konrats are the descendants of the Konrats who stayed there (after the 1449).

Muhamed-Salih, the author of the “Sheybani-name“, testifies that Muhamed Shajbani had many Konrats during his capture of Turkestan. Apparently, the Konrats settled in the space northwest from Bukhara. In the 1533 the Konrat batyrs (strongmen) Hafiz and Kuntuar, as testified by Abdul Gaza, set off to a campaign against Horesm, fell in a trap and were killed by Dinmuhamed the Khorezmian. In the 1690 a Konrat  Muhamed-Biy-atalyk (Biy-atalyk is akin to Prince of Fatherland) ruled Balh. In the 1702 after the death of Subankul (Savar/Suban Lake) Khan in the Bukhara formed 2 parties: a Konrat's, led by the above Muhamed-Biy and Mangytian with Muhamed Rahimbiy (Maraim). The victory fell to the Mangyts, who after that enthroned and overthrew a few figurehead khans. The Konrats defeated by Maraim left to the Eastern Bukhara, Urgench and to the Seyhun (Syr-Darya) Kirgizes. In the beginning of the 1800 in the Urgench,  a Konrat  El-Tuzer Inak proclaimed hjimself a Khan, his dynasty was overthrown in the 1919 (by the Red Army?).

The Kirgiz Konrats in the 1723 were located west from Seyhun (Syr-Darya), and almost did not suffer from the invasion of the Djungars. They, apparently, did not participate in the military actions of the 1725-26, and in the later events (1750-1758ã.), and crossed over to the right side of Seyhun (Syr-Darya) at about 1760 AD.


The Konyrat (Konrat) clan initially belonged to the Uly Juz (Senior Juz) . Then they joined the Orta (Middle) Juz. From the words of Rashid-ad-din and Abulgazi, the Konrats from the dynasty of Oguz-Khan, from his tayfa durlegen were the descendants of Jorlyk-Mergen and his son Konyrat. Per Radloff and ancient Kazakh legends, the ancestors of the Konyrats are Kok and Koktenshi (Koktenshi = Kok [blue, heavenly] + tenshi [Chinese title, ruler]).

Per Levshin, their clans are:

In my opinion, the clan Jetim are the descendants of Sarjetim, a son of Suündyk from the clan Tokal-Argyn. Because from the clan Sarjetim-Shakshak, the Sshakshak is in Kyshe Juz (Junior Juz), and Sarjetim are not mentioned in any Juz.

According to the Chinese historian Üan Shau Mish (“Yuan-chaomishi“, the “Secret history of Mongols“), in the ancient times the Onkurts, i.e. Konyrats lived in the lower course of the r. Kalka,  where it flows into the lake Bayür. Many from the Konyrat clan also joined the Özbeks and began to be called Özbeks.


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.
Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990


Kypchaks are a  Türkic tribe. Till the 9th century they lived east from the r. Yaik; per Ahmed Zaki Validov (Validi) they lived west from the r. Irtysh. In the 890 Kypchaks crossed the r. Ural, attacked Besenyos (Badjinaks) and tore them apart in two, on the eastern (the ancestors of the present Karakalpaks), and the western (known as Besenyos in Latin sources, Bejeneks in Byzantian sources, “Black Klobuks“, i.e. Karakalpaks in the early Rus sources, and Pechenegs in the later Rus sources); in the 900-1200 Kypchaks lived from Itil to the Dnieper and allied with the treacherous southern Rus. In the 1222 in the north from the Caucasian mountains the Mongolian commanders Subetai (more correctly Sypatai) and Jebe defeated them. In the 1223 on the bank of the river Kalka Mongols defeated Kypchaks and a joint group of their southern Rus Princes allies. The first time, Mongols were satisfied with those victories, and left to the east (they were finally defeated by the Itil Bulgaria, see here p.162). In the 1237 Batyi (Batu; Batyi is Russified form), after defeating and ravaging the Itil Bulgaria, and subordinating the eastern and southern parts of Rus, attacked Kypchaks and defeated them. The Arabian historian Ruknaddin testifies that the fast success of the Mongols was assisted by infighting between two Kypchak groups. One part submitted to the Mongols, another part left to the west; a part of the last moved to Hungary. The captured Kypchaks were bought by the Venetian merchants, who were selling them in Egypt.

With time many Kypchaks came to Egypt, and the Egyptian Sultan formed of them separate regiments. These soldiers became known under a name of Mamelüks (i.e. slaves). In the 1259 Mamelüks rebelled, killed the Sultan and installed in his place a Kypchak Ibak.

Before the arrival of the Mongols, the most numerous tribe in the N.Pontic were the Kypchaks, and the Ruses also called the Altyn Ordu (Golden Horde) a Kypchak Ordu, and the Turkestanians also called it- with a Perso-Türkic term Desht-Kypchak (i.e. Kypchak steppe). In the 14th century Kypchaks coached along the middle course of Itil and from there to the lower course  of Seyhun (Syr-Darya). In the 15 century Kypchaks were a nucleus of the Abulhair Khanlyk; at one time they coached in the Karatau mountains (in Kazakhstan), which were also called Kar Aspanian mountains; among the Kirgiz Kypchaks is a sub-clan Karaspan. Their stay in these places is also definitely indicated by the dastan  “Koblandy-batyr“. The hero of dastan  Koblandy was a cortier of Abulhair, he killed the head of Argyns Dairhodja (Akjol), which caused the Argyns to leave Abulhair and migrate with Djanybek to the Mogolistan. The tomb of Koblandy is in Aktyubinsk district on the bank of the r. Kara-Hobda 40 versts from Iletsk. The Khanlyk of Abulhair, who was a strongest khan in the Altyn Ordu (Golden Horde), toward the end of his life had weakened. Abul Gaza tells that the Nogay Murzas (seigniors) Hodjas and Vakas, the grandsons of Edyge, were mortal enemies of each other, Vakas was killed by Hodjas. The sons of Vakas, Musa and Yamgurchi, not obtaining a satisfaction from Abulhair, joined the Abulhair relative Borke Sultan, killed Hodjas and headed a big group of population to leave to the lower course of Itil.

After the death of Abulhair his ulus was attacked by Kirgizes and Nogays. Apparently, the Kypchaks dispersed in that period: one part remained with the sons of Abulhair, and subsequently participated in the conquest by Muhamed Sheybani of the Turkestan, another part joined Kirgizes, a third part left to the Nogays. It is possible that some parts were separating earlier: it is possible to definitely state about the Volga Tatars that they are mainly the descendants of the Kypchaks, who settled there earlier. The Kypchaks could pass to the Crimea from the Nogay Kypchaks; and to the Bashkiria they could pass from the Nogay, and from the Kirgiz Kypchaks. It is notable that the main tamga for our Kazakhstan Kypchaks and the Bashkir Kypchaks is the same “I I“.

After that time the Kirgiz Kypchaks, apparently, did not play an appreciable role in the life of the people. In the Kazan and in the Crimea the Kypchaks at all time constituted a ruling class, because from the Kypchaks were selected the hereditary karachis (something like the ministers).

As to the Uzbek Kypchaks, they, for example, in the Kokand Khanlyk constituted a ruling class. The famous regent Musulmankul, who was  holding Hudoyar Khan and the urban population in fear, his son Abdurahman-Avtobachi, and the defender of Tashkent Mullah Alimkul all were Kypchaks.


Kypchaks separated from the Kanly and left to the free, unoccupied lands, and consequently that clan was nicknamed Kypchaks. The meaning of this word is “wild, empty, unoccupied steppe“. Long before the invasion of Chingiskhan on the banks of coast Edil (i.e. Itil) and Jaik (aka Yaik and Djaik) they formed a state, which was devastated by the armies of Juchi-Khan, the son of Chingis. Their country was called Deshti-Kipchak. The Arabian chroniclers Amir-ad-din and Ibn Haldun among the Kypchak clans distinguished the tribes:

The Middle Juz has a few of the Kypchak tribes, but I do not know, who is who. The Kipchaks became so fewer because they intermixed with many other tribes. Many became the Nogays and Özbeks.


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.


Group Kara-kesek (Alim-uly, Chomekey, Kete).

In the middle of the 6th century Jeti-Su has was conquered by the Türks who came from Altai. In the Chinese records, in the 7th century west from the r. Chu lived the divisions of Chumyn (Chumugun). In the 654 AD Chinese attacked Chumugun, destroyed their capital, killed 30 thousand Chumuguns and cut their ears (for counting the murdered population). Around 700 AD the Western Türkic Khan had 40.000 army from the Chumugun tribe (for more history on the Chumugun branch of the Huns click here. Chumuguns were one of a group of the kindred tribes, and must have had around 500,000 total Chumis, if 1/3 of them could furnish a 40.000-strong army - Translator's Note)

In the 742-744 after sufferring a defeat from allied forces of Uigurs and Karluks, Chumugunsa fled to the west.

The book “Diuan Lagat al- Türk“, written in the 1073, almost simultaneously with the “Kudatku-bilik“ (1069) mentioned on the banks of the r. Chu a tribe Chekly.

The Karakesek group (Alimuly, Chomekey and Kete) had their ancient uran (war cry) “Doit“; one of the Alim sub-clans is Chekty (or Chekly). Southwest from the Kashgar, in the eastern part of Alai mountains now live the Kara-Kirgiz clans Karakesek and Toit; they live adjacently for a long time and, per a traditional tale, are related.

Thus, the Karakesek and Doit (Toit) are found simultaneously at the Kirgizes of the Junior Horde and at the Kara-Kirgiz, and these are names both there and here are closely connected. From that possible to draw a conclusion: among the Türks that came from the Altai to the banks of the r. Chu in the middle of the 6th century  were clans Chumen or Chumekey,  from whom the r. Chu could receive its name (note, that in the Altai south of the Teles lake is river Chu or Chuya, Chuy steppe and Chuy squirrels. These place names are near the r. Cherkish mentioned above).

During 2 centuries  (550-740) on the banks of ther. Chu they were a nucleus of the Western Türkic state, and in the 742-744 AD Uigurs and Karluks split them into 2 parts, a major part fled to the west, and a smaller part went over the mountains to Kashgaria. The Kirgiz group, apparently, all the time lived by the lower course of the r. Seyhun (Syr-Darya) and east from the Aral sea. This, probably, explains why no Karakeseks lived in the Crimea, Kazan and among the Bashkirs; only the Kete are mentioned at the Astrakhan Nogays and Turkmen. The name Alim, undoubtedly, is a later development, given, probably, to the group in honor of a spiritual patronage by some hodja.


Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990



The distant ancestors of the Tolengits (Tulenguts), according to Russian historians, are the mountain Kalmyks of the Altai who lived around the lake Tolet (Tulet) (Russian or from Cuckooland, this is a a patented nonsense, historical, geographical, and ethnological. For Tele ethnology, see L.Potapov).


Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990


This clan is not mentioned in the ancient annals. For the first time it is mentioned in the time of Ablay-khan (1713-1781). Russian historians believe that Uaks descended from the Kerey clan, because it is known that when the Russian armies for the first time run into Kereys, Uaks were together with them. Besides, their clan tamga is similar to the one of the Kereys. One Balhashin tells that pra-pra-grandfather of the Uaks was called Erkokshe. He was a son of Aydarkhan, and that, in turn, was a descendant of Kambar-khan. This, it seems, is only a legend. Levshin and Balhashin also assert that one of the branches of the clan Uak is Sarybagis. They ostensibly are the descendants of the captured Karakirgizes (Kirgizes), brought by Ablay-khan after his raids on them in the second half of the 18th century. I tend to think that the word “Uak“ comes from the word “usak“, meaning “minuscule“, i.e. a small people. They are much less numerous than the Argyns, Naymans, Kereys. All what we know about them is that the Uaks' ancestors are Sarman and Shoga. From Sarman descended two sons, Karagoz and Kokchekoz. Shogi had five sons: Sarbayan (Sarbagysh), Sarsha, Beimbet, Murat, Srgeli.

One more tidbit: among the Özbeks of the Maverannahr are known three Nayman clans: Sadyrbek, Kostamgaly, Uaktamgaly. They list themselves as Kazakhs from the clan Konyrat, who in their turn separated from Naymans. The clan Uaktamgaly, most likely, is the Uaks.


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.


Group Djetyru (Seven clans).

From their sub-clans, Djetyru-tama and Ramadan were already mentioned. Tabyn resembles the name of the mountains Tabyn bogdo-olo, located south of the Chuy Blank and Chuy Steppe. Tabyn in Mongolian means five: it is possible that the name came from association of five clans. In relation to the Kereit it has been told that it (Djetyru, Jetyru), apparently, is a part of the Kereys who were separated from the rest while fleeing from Chingiskhan, and joined with Merkits while retreating. The Kerderi, according to all available information of the ancient and latest researchers, are the descendants of those Üechji (or Üz) (aka Yuechji, Yueji, Yuezhi, Ases), who in the 2nd century AD were expelled by the Huns and Uysyns.

Here is a most brief summary from Veselovsky about Kerderi.

 The Chinese records about the 1st century BC, the Üechji possessed the Horesm. In the 5th century AD they continued living in the same place; in the Byzantian writers they are called Huns-Ephtalites (Procopius Caesarian), Huns, Kidarits or White Huns (Prisk Pannonian). Saint Martin (1849) is arguing that Ephtalites or Kidarits are the descendants of the Üechji. In days of Zemarh travel (567-569 AD) the Ephtalites were occupying a prevailing position among other tribes. In the 1000es the Aral Sea was called Kerderian (by the Arabs); the part of the Horesm to the right of the Cheyhun (Amu-Darya) was also called Kerderian. There were 2 cities with the name Kerderi, one on the right bank of  the Cheyhun (Amu-Darya), another on the left bank.

The sub-clan Djagalbayly (pronounced Djagal-bye-lih) once, apparently, lived somewhere near Horesm: Djagalbayly is found in Crimea, with the Nogays, in Horesm, among Karakalpaks, Bukhara and Fergana Uzbeks and Kuram, everywhere in small numbers. Apparently, Djagalbayly suffered a devastation (maybe in the 1625, when Naimans fled from the Horesm). Their sub-clan Teleu is not mentioned in the history; their former residence was also in the south (Teleu are found among the Uzbeks and Kuram; they are not found at the Nogays and further on to the west and north).

In the Kirgiz legends, Tauke-khan united 7 weak clans of the Middle Horde and joined them into the Junior Horde; the factual data about their origin contradict these legends.


Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.


Mongolian historian Sanan-Sesena states that Djalairs come from a numerous and strong group of the Mongols known under a name Eke-Mongol (Great Mongols). From the very beginning of the Chingiskhan activity, Djalairs came to his side and participated in his campaigns to China, Tibet, Turkestan and Persia. A famous Chingiskhan commander Mukuly-Govan, the conqueror of China, came from the Djalair clan. In the Chingiskhan days and later the Djalairs were divided into four groups: the first remained in Mongolia and China, the second was transferred to Djochy children and under all accounts settled east from the middle course of the r. Chu and was called Chu-Manak; a third group settled in the valleys of Chirchik and Angren, and is known in history under the name Djalair Horde (another name was Syr-Manak); the fourth group with Hulagu-khan left to Persia.

The Djalair Horde in the beginning of the Timur rise supported him, but in the 1370 it switched over to the side of his Dulat opponents, for which it was crushed and dispersed by Timur. The Persian group played a ruling role in Persia; the Djalair dynasty even reigned in the Northern Persia, and at one time even ruled in Bagdad. The main body of our Djalairs consist of Chu-Manaks, which in the 1370 were joined by Syr-Manak refugees.

The Djalairs at all times stayed in the eastern part of the Djochy Ulus, and were known under a name of the White Horde (the dynasty of Orda-Ejen). In the days of Timur, Chumanaks were a nucleus of the Orus-Khanand his sons army. In the 15-16 centuries they were, approximately, in the same places.

In the 1588 the son of Onnan-sultan Uraz Muhamed and his courtier Kadyr-Karachi (Karachi is something like a state minister) fell in Siberia into a captivity of the Russians, and were taken to Moscow. Kadyr composed a family tree of Uraz-Muhamed. Apparently, at that time the Djalairs were located near Ulu-Tau and Kokshetau. Before the pogrom of 1723 the Djalairs, as seen from the legends, returned again to the r. Chu. From the invasion of Kalmyks the Djalairs fled, apparently, to the Betpak-dala and did not suffer much. Djalairs actively participated in the expulsion of the  Djungars, in the 1757-58 they were along the lower course of the r. Ayaguz, from where they turned to the Kopal district, where still live now.



Muhamedian Tynyshbaev “Materials about the history of the Kazakh people“, Tashkent 1925.
Shakarim Kudayberdy-Uly “Family tree of Türks, Kirgizes, Kazakhs and their Khan dynasties “, translation to Russian by Bahyt Kairbekov, Alma-Ata, Dastan, 1990
Selected articles from the O. Janaydarov book “Tengrianism: Myths And Legends Of Ancient Türks “: Ancient Kazakh clan “Argyn“


The name Argyn or Argun is of a known river in the Buryat province, which runs into r. Amur. In the Altai is a r. Argut, a right tributary of the r. Katun.

In the Mongolian language the ending “t“ designates plural, and “n“ a singular case.

If to change in last word “t“ on “ì“ it turns out again argun or Argyn. Aristov speaks, that in 5 century the Chinese historians mention people “alun“ or “baj-egu“. It is known, that Chinese do not pronounce “r“ (therefore the Türks ware called Tukiu; and many Europeans, without regarding this fact, think till now that Tukiu is one of the Türkic tribes). “Bay“ means in Chinese “great“, in Türkic it is “ulug“. Then “Alun“ can be read “Arun“ or “Argun“, and “Bay-egu“ can be read Ulug-Argun. Such sound transformations in the words are quite permissible, because in the Orkhon inscriptions are mentioned people “Ulug-Erkin“.

Patkanov (Patkanov S. Statistical data showing tribal composition of the Siberian population, languages and clans of aliens. (Russia called “aliens“ the native ingenuous people, and the invading colonizers were like “normal“ - Translator's Note) Three volumes. (Based on the data of special research of the 1897 census materials) Spb. Publ. Acad of Sciences 1911 - 1912) in the statistical reports about the population of the Tobolsk, Tomsk and Yenisei provinces, calls the Chulym ulus of the Tomsk province Greater-Argyn, and for the Achinsk ulus of the Yenisei province gives numbers of the Greater-Argyn and Lesser-Argun clans. Adding to this the statement of Rashid-Ed-Din that Argyn or Arikan is a Mongolian tribe, the location of the ancestors of ours Argyns as genuine Mongols, in the Mongolia in the 5th-7th centuries should be indisputable. Aristov notes that Argyns in the days of Chingiskhan advanced to the west ahead of the Nayman and Kereys; in respect to the fact of the movement in this order the Aristov's remark is true, but the Argyn migration undoubtedly took place before Chingizhan.  It is known that after the death of Kara-Gula Khan his wife Ergene-Hatyn, as some writers call her, Organa or Arguna-Hatyn as write the others, ruled the Chagatai ulus. Rubruk, who passed the present Kopal and Lepsi uluses in the November, 1253, states that the country was earlier called Organum.

The commentator for Rubruk, prof. Malein notes that “Rubruk was strangely mistaken, calling the country by name of the Quinn Organa“. We shall add to this that in the same places, 30 versts from the lake Balkhash is a mountain Arganaty, which name comes from the reduction of two words “Argyn-Ata“, i.e. Argyn father, where “argyn“ can be not a proper name, instead of which the Kirgizes frequently use a clan name. This multiple recurrence of organa, organum, organaty is certainly, not accidental. From the descriptions of the Timur campaigns we know, that in the 14th century Argyns lived between the lake Alakul and the r. Karatal, i.e. in the same places.

Obviously, Rubruk made a lesser mistake, than his commentator. The suitable for the Rubruk hearing Organum, with a Latin ending,  was not the name the country, but the people Argyn. The expression Argyn Hatun is understood by Kirgizes in the sense that the woman comes from the clan Argyn; therefore it is not the name of the ruler at all. From the words that “the country (in our lingo, the population) was earlier called Argyn“ follows that Argyns lived there before the Chingiskhan campaign. From the Chingiskhan campaign is known, that in the autumn of the 1219 Karluk Arslan-khan joined him in Koyalyk (identified with Dungene ruins). If the Argyns lived in those places earlier, they could be the subjects of the Karluk Arslan-khan, and probably, participated together with him in the Chingiskhan campaign to Turkestan and Persia. Aristov, apparently, even wanted to identify the Karlyks with the Argyns, and probably, he was close to the truth:

1. By his data in the body of Argyns (or as he calls them Basimi) were 3 Karlyk clans;
2. The word “argyn“ in the vernacular of the Karakirgizes (Kirgizes) designates a “hybrid“ (so is called the mix of yak and ordinary horned livestock);

3. In the 10th century under a pressure of Toguz-Oguzes the Karluks were split into 2 parts, the western part in the 12th century pastured near Bukhara, and the eastern part is mentioned only once, during Chingiskhan campaign. Apparently, the eastern Karluks dissolved in the mass of the another tribe, namely the Argyns.

As Chingisids usually married the princesses and generally noble persons, it is possible that the mentioned Quinn from the clan Argyn came also from a notable family, and may be, from the Arslan-khan. This Quinn, in the words of Vassaf, was one of “three Mongolian images of beauty, charm, courtesy and noblesse, who were sibling sisters and spouses of the three Princes, a Chagataid, a Djuchid and a Tulid“.

In the Chagatai Ulus the Argyns suffered Timur's devastating attacks in 1376, 1389 and 1390; then in the beginning of the 15th c.  begun attacks by the Djungars from the east. In the 1456 Argyns were already much to the west and were the subjects of the Orus-khan grandson, a famous Khan Djanibek (Janibek). Apparently, Argyns left to the west at about 1400-1410, as the Argyns (Kandjigits branch) in the 1420 participated in a campaign of Barak Khan, the father of Djanibek, to Tashkent and Hodjent. Among the Argyns still exists a legend that the most favorite persons of the Uzbek Abulhair were Koblandy-batyr from the clan Kara-Kypchak, and Dairhodja, nicknamed Ak-Jol, from the clan Argyn. Their rivalry has ended in killing of Dairhoja (Ak-Jol) by the Kypchak Koblandy. Argyns demanded from Abulhair to turn Koblandy over to them; the Khan turned down their request. Then the Argyns (and Kereys), led by the sultans Djanybek and Kerey left Abulhair and migrated to the east. This legend explains the reasons for  of leaving of Djanibek and Kerey to the Mogolistan, south from lake Balkhash (Khan-Tau), known to us from the history. Obviously, this bloody insult explains why the Sheybanids did not have any Argyns left when all others clans were divided between Sheybanids and descendants of Djanybek; at least in the list of the clans which were with Muhamed-Sheybani during conquest of Turkestan, Argyn is not mentioned anywhere. Because the formation of the Kazak Khanlyk ordinarily is counted from with moment (with which I do not quite agree), the Argyns were undoubtedly a senior member in the Khanlyk. The Kirgiz legends definitely point that Djanybek subsequently moved to the lower course of Itil and built there Astrahan.

Karamzin tells that the Kipchak Khanaate Khan Ahmed transferred the Crimea to Djanibek. From Velyaminov-Zernov is visible that Djanibek was afraid of Mengli-Girey and contacted in the 1475-1477 Ivan III, asking him for a refuge just in case. Finally around 1480 he moved to Russia, where he died. From Velyaminov-Zernov we know that Argyns in Crimea, Kazan and Astrakhan played outstanding roles and were Karachis (i.e. Khans' courtiers). We saw above that Argyns were  the most reliable and loyal members in the hands of the Barak sons. After that we would not be mistaken to state that upon the death of Uzbek Abulhair (about 1465) Djanybek with his Argyns settled in the lower course of Itil and built there his permanent capital, the city of Astrakhan. It is possible, that that is one of several cities known under that name, which were built and destroyed at different times. He did not, apparently, stayed there for long. The Kipchak Khanaate Khan Ahmed, obviously not wishing to have close such an influential Chingisid, granted him the Crimea, to where he moved with a significant group of the loyal Argyns; when Djanibek left to Russia, Argyns remained in Crimea and continued to play outstanding roles.

Finally, Velyaminov-Zernov notes (Part 1, page 123) that Kazan was considered a yurt of Barak, it can be concluded that Barak (killed about 1430) ruled the northern part of the Altyn Ordu (Golden Horde) before coming there Ulu-Muhamed and the formation of the Kazan Khanlyk. That means that Argyns could appear there during Barak time, and then remain as one of the dominant clans.

In the Caucasus a small mountain river Argun runs into the river Sundja, which runs in the Argen gorge where aul Argun is located; the aul, probably, is a splinter brought there by some of the Djanybek descendants. In the magazine “New East“ (No 5, 1924) a citizen Yakovlev in an article “New in the study of the Northern Caucasus“ tells that the Sultans of Avaria were from the family of the Sultan Orus. Possibly these sultans came from the descendants of the grandson Djanybek of Orus-khan. From the words of Bashkir Mulakaev, Rychkov informs that the son of Hak-Nazar-Khan, Ahmed-Girey, led of a part of Nogays to the r. Kuban (at about 1580);  possibly with him left also those Argyns whose descendants live in the Argun gorge. A large group of Argyns that remained under the power of the Edyge descendant Nogay Murzas, apparently left from there in the middle of the 16th century, after the bloody internecine fights between the Murzas (Ismail and Jusuf), and the Russian conquest of the Kazan and Astrakhan.

At the end of the 16th century the Argyns appeared in the Karatau mountains and participated in the campaigns of Taukel-Khan and Esym-Khan against Fergena, Samarkand and Bukhara.

In a campaign of Esym-khan on the Tashkent allodial khan Tursun in the 1629 participated Argyns: among the Argyns of the Karkar and Semipalat uluses preserved a legend that during a raid on Katagans under Esym-Khan, the  Argyn batyrs brought 40 maidens, from which a certain Konyr-bike was taken in wifes by a Tobukt Sary, an ancestor of the famous Kirgiz national poet Abay Kunanbaev and of the historian Shakarim Kudajberdin.

In the 1620 begun the bloody Kirgiz encounters with the Kalmyks, where the advantage, apparently, remained on the side of Kalmyks; the position of the Kirgiz improved a little during the famous Kirgiz lawgiver Tauk-Khan (the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century). The Argyns at that time lived north from the Karatau mountains, occasionally, apparently, getting with their flocks onto the pastures in the areas of the middle course of Sary-Su and Ulu-Tau mountain. During the advance of the Djungars in the 1723, the Argyns (Kereys and Djalairs) suffered much less, they hid in the waterless desert Betpak-dala. During the victorious advance of the Kirgiz in the 1725-26, the Argyns were in the forefront.

In the 1726, per Levshin's information, the Kirgiz Khans broke up. The cause of the quarrels, apparently, was the election as a Khans of 3 Hordes, after the death of Bolat-Khan, of his son, a youngish Abulmambet. His uncle and brother of Bolat, the old Sameke (Shahmuhamed), and the commander-in-chief of all Kirgiz forces, the allodial khan of the Kyshe (Junior) Horde, the aged Abulhair, found themselves bypassed, and, in the crest of a rapid and victorious advance in which the Kirgizes reached the river Ili, they abandoned the frontlines and left northwest to the Russian border, where they accepted a Russian citizenship. The victorious, glorious campaign was completely ruined, the remaining Kirgizes retreated: the major part (Orta Juz -  Middle Horde) departed to the north, a smaller (Ulu Juz -  Senior Horde) found itself pushed against Seyhun (Syr-Darya) and had to submit to the Djungars. However, these groups did not cease fighting, until after the defeat of the Kalmyks by the Chinese (1757) Ablay-khan led Kirgizes to finish off the Kalmyks; after that, since the 1758, Argyns began settled in those places where they were found by the Russians.

In Russian
Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Overview of Sarmatian chronology
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal princedoms
Saltovo-Mayak Culture
Codex of Inscriptions-Euro Asiatic-Don
Alanian Etymology Notes
Alans in Pyrenees
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline