In Russian
Turkic and English

Classification of Türkic languages
Lingo-Ethnical Tree
Indo-European, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Archaeology and language: Indo-Iranians
Türkic Substrate in English
Russian Version needs a translation
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Rick Mc Callister
On-line dictionary of postulated non-IE substrate vocabulary
 in the Germanic languages

Edited & prepared for the web by Rick Mc Callister © 1999


http://web.archive.org/web/20010805003821/ http://www.muw.edu/~rmccalli/subsGerIntro.html


One would think that given the Altaic/Türkic-German background during just the historical period, the well known Türkic-German symbiosis during the Late Antique period culminating with the rule of Attila, the attention of a least venturous linguistic researcher investigating non-IE German cognates would include Altaic, especially given those unmistakable cognates as -er, earth, man, dawn, german, etc. We are moving in that direction, but not on a run yet, as is evidenced by the following list that includes only one cognate entry. An expansion of the list from postulated to putative would also enlarge the list manyfold, and bring about a better understanding of both Türkic and German histories.

Examples of linguistical layers in English and sister languages of Türkic substrate mostly omitted from the “postulated” non-IE substrate vocabulary are compiled in a little table below. This sample list is an extraction from a larger list at Türkic Substrate in English:

  English Türkic English Türkic English Türkic English Türkic English Türkic
1 antler anten coal kül/köl -er er papa baba/babai talk (v. & n.) tili (v. & n.)
2 alms almak cockney köken essen (Germ) ash phlegm balgam tasse (Germ) tas/taz
3 arch arca colon kolon flask baklaga robe rop tell (v.) tili (v. & n.)
4 bane < pata coney, cony kuyan go (v.) git -s -si theriacum tiryak
5 barn ambar cup   guest göster sack sak    
6 bat (v.) pata (v.) dawn tang (taŋ) hag karga sage sag thick sik
7 bazaar baz dementia dumur host göster say (v.) söy (v.) this şu
8 body bod diadem didim house koš/quš/xüžə schabracke (Germ) cheprak thread telu
9 boot bot dip, deep dip hut koš/quš/xüžə she şu tooth tis
10 calamus acor dumb (adj.) dumur kill (v.) kelle (v.) sin cin (jin) tower türma
11 cake kek dune dun kin kun/kün skull kelle tree terek
12 candle kandil Earth Yer king kengu son song truth dürüst
13 cap kap eat (v.) ye (v.) land elen < el sonjis (Goth.) "truth" čïn [chyn] turkey turuhtan
14 castigate (v.) kast (v.) I (arch. ic) es man men sorrel (adj.) sary (adj.) ulan oglan/ulan
15 castle kishlak elbow el matt mat tale tili (v. & n.) undies andarak
16 clan oglan/ulan ell el mead mir tambourine tambur write (v.) rizan (v.)
17     elm ilm message muştu        
18         moisture mayi        
Rick Mc Callister
On-line dictionary of postulated non-IE substrate vocabulary in the Germanic languages

Non-Indo-European substrate vocabulary in Germanic include::
  • loanwords and Wanderwörter in Indo-European and Western-Indo-European such as technical, cultural & agricultural vocabulary from or via Middle Eastern, Paleo-Anatolian, Mediterranean & Caucasian languages
  • loanwords to early Germanic and Western Indo-European from indigenous Western & Northern European languages such as seafaring, natural, institutional & local technical lexicon
  • words of unknown origin which cannot be linked to Indo European

The German linguist Theo Vennemann has postulated Vasconic & Afro-Asiatic as major sources of substrate vocabulary in Germanic.
His linguistic scenario of Ancient Europe presumes that languages related to modern Basque ranged over much of Western Europe, including France, Switzerland and Germany. While it is known that Aquitanian, the language ancestral to Basque, was spoken in southwestern France in pre Roman times, the extent of Vasconic in pre-Indo-European times is still unknown. Vennemann's hypothesis uses the comparative method and is well researched yet much more remains to be learned about the pre history of Vasconic.
His hypothetical Afro-Asiatic lexicon presupposes that megalithic Atlantic civilization corresponds to settlement by traders and settlers speaking either an early Semitic language or an Afro-Asiatic language closely related to Semitic

Robert Claiborne attributes non-Indo-European substrate to a language he refers to as "Folkish," based on the assertion that the word "folk" is derived from that language. According to Claiborne's scenario, "Folkish" was spoken along or near the Baltic Sea and is responsible for much vocabulary dealing with seafaring and the marine environment

Eric Hamp and others have postulated an "Apple language" in North Central Europe, which they see as responsible for indigenous substrate vocabulary common to Germanic, Celtic, Italic and Balto-Slavic

Other possible sources for non-Indo-European substrate may include Uralic & Tyrrhenian. Uralic languages were once spoken much farther south than present in Scandinavia and the eastern Baltic. Tyrrhenian languages related to Etruscan include Rhaetic, which was spoken in the area of present Italy and Switzerland. At present, very little vocabulary has been ascribed to Uralic and virtually none to Tyrrhenian. [The Swiss etyma klap-, krap- is sometimes said to Rhaetic]

Obviously, such a project can only be described as tentative, given that most evidence suggesting that a given word is non-Indo-European is essentially negative :

  • the word does not exist in other branches of Indo-European
  • its phonology does not conform to the norms of Indo-European
  • the evolution of the word does not correspond to known phonological laws of the branch in question

The first criteria kills the other two: neither phonology, nor evolution would make any difference if a word is an accident for the family as a whole. And on the opposite side, a word that is endemic to all brunches belongs there, and the “known phonological laws” need to be revised, *asterisked, or whatever it takes to accept the phonological black sheep into the family fold.

On the other hand, a word that belongs to all IE brunches, but contains identifiable morphological elements from another family is a loanword, like the offsprings of a Martian ancestor that are predominantly of the Earthly genetic make-up, just look at the word “Internet” that can now be found in all linguistic families, and the “known phonological laws” notwithstanding, is a loanword in all languages except English. No phonological studies of, say, Urdu would would prove it to be a loanword, because its adoption could only happen under Urdu linguistic phonology. However, the indivisible morphological prefix particle “inter” is positively marking the word as a loanword from a family that uses prefixes to form words, there is no way around it.

Consequently, applying questionable criteria is as productive as using the “known alchemic laws” in petrochemistry. You can readily classify materials as being under a sign of, say, Venus, but turning water into oil would remain a problem.

In practice, a word is considered to tentatively belong to a linguistic family if it is found in at least two sufficiently remote brunches of the family. Then a verification examination inventories potential donors, and excludes all of them one by one. Then an investigation from all angles tries to exclude any remaining candidate donor. If investigation fails to exclude all candidates, the etymology of the word remains questionable. Linguistics is not a self-contained discipline, history plays a major role in linguistics: the spread of the word “Internet” is unexplainable without a clue on the modern virtual human migrations and the physical device migrations, and so are the linguistic consequences of the past human movements. Linguistics is but one facet of the human history, people move not only with their languages, but with their etiology, ethnology, mythology, burial traditions, transportation and production methods, and certainly with their biology and genetics. Attempts to reconstruct linguistic events without regard to historical background are doomed.

It should be no surprise that there is much disagreement regarding potential non-Indo-European substrate vocabulary. While some linguists propose a broad inventory of non-Indo-European substrate vocabulary, others make a determined attempt to relate all Germanic vocabulary to Indo-European. This list is as inclusive as possible. Take this list, then, as a collection of possibilities.

Sources are indicated by initials. A bibliography follows. Additions and suggestions are welcome.

Links to pages by Author
@, A, E, I, J, O, U B D F G H K, Q L M N P R S T VW Z        


Carrasquer Vidal, Miguel <mcv@wxs.nl >
Claiborne, Robert. The Roots of English. NY: Random, 1989. [rc]
Comrie, Bernard. The World's Major Languages. NY: Oxford UP, 1987. [bc]
Cowgill, W. Idg Gramm. [IGG]
Xavier Delamarre <xdelamarre@siol.net> [xd] ---

Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. [forthcoming]

Duncan "English 451 notes" (class webpage) [d]
Gamkrelidze, Thomas V. & Vjecheslav V. Ivanov. Indo-European & the Indo-Europeans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995. [g&i]
Glen Gordon" <glengordon01@hotmail.com>
Hamp, Eric. "The Pre-IE Language of Northern (Central) Europe". When Worlds Collide. [eh]
Markey, T. L. "Gift, Payment and Reward Revisited". When Worlds Collide. 345ff.
Mayrhofer EWAia.
Meillet, Antoine. General Characteristics of Indo-European, 1929. [am]
Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [REW]
Mondadori's Pocket Italian-English/English-Italian Dictionary. NY: Pocket 1977.
Porse, Sten <porse@post3.tele.dk> (e-mail post) [sp]
Pyles & Algeo's History of English [p&a]
Rasmussen, J. E. Studien zur Morphophonemik der idg Spr. 239-40
Schrader, O. Szemenenyi. An den Quellen des lateinischen Wortschatzes. [QLW]
Streadbeck, Arval L. "Germanic languages." Grolier Encyclopedia on CD-ROM. Grolier Electronic Publishing. [als]
Szemerenyi, O. Scripta Minoa 4. [SM]
Trask, Larry <larryt@cogs.susx.ac.uk> [lt]
Tyrberg, Tommy <tommy.tyrberg@norrkoping.mail.telia.com>
Vennemann, Theo (e-mail Jan 99) [tv1/99]

---"Bemerkung zum frühgermanischen Wortschatz." Fs. Matzel, Heidelberg 1984, 105-19. [tv84]
---"Etymologische Beziehungen im Alten Europa", Der GinkgoBaum 13 [tv95]
---"Some West Indo-European words of uncertain origin." Fs. Fisiak. Berlin 1997, I.879-908. [tv97]
Waterman., John T. A History of the German Language. Seattle: U Wash P, 1966. [jtw]
Watkins, Calvert . Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, rev. Boston: Houghton, 1985. [cw]
---Selected Writings. [SW]
Max W Wheeler <maxw@cogs.susx.ac.uk>
Wordsworth English-German/German-English Dictionary. Ware, Herts UK: Wordsworth, 1994.


Bryson, Bill. The Mother Tongue.
Claiborne, Robert. The Roots of English. NY: Random, 1989. [rc]
Comrie, Bernard. The World's Major Languages. NY: Oxford UP, 1987.[bc]
Cowgill, W. Idg Gramm. [IGG]
Delamarre, Xavier. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. [forthcoming]
Furnée, Eduard J. Die wichtigsten konsonantischen Erscheinungen des Vorgriechischen. The Hague, 1972.
Gamkrelidze, Thomas V. & Vjecheslav V. Ivanov. Indo-European & the Indo-Europeans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995.
Hamp, Eric. "The Pre-IE Language of Northern (Central) Europe". When Worlds Collide. 291-.
Heyne. Deutsches Worterbuch
Lehmann. Theor. Bases of IE Linguistics.
Liebich, Bruno. Wortfamilien der deutschen Sprache (1899, 1905.
Lockwood, W. B., An Informal History of the German Language, with Chapters on Dutch and Afrikaans, Frisian and Yiddish.1965.
Markey, T. L. "Gift, Payment and Reward Revisited". When Worlds Collide. 345ff.
Mayrhofer EWAia.
Meillet, Antoine. General Characteristics of Indo-European, 1929.
---General Characteristics of the Germanic Languages, trans. by William Dismukes (1970)
Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Mondadori's Pocket Italian-English/English-Italian Dictionary. NY: Pocket 1977.
Polomé, Edgar: "The non-Indo-European components of the Germanic lexicon." Annemarie Etter (ed.) O-o-pe-ro-si: Festschrift für Ernst Risch zum 79. Berlin: Geburtstag. 1986.
--- JIES 18 ("The Indo- Europeanization of Northern Europe: the linguistic evidence").
Pyles & Algeo's History of English [p&a]
Prokosch, Eduard. Comparative Germanic Grammar
Rasmussen, J. E. Studien zur Morphophonemik der idg Spr. 239-40. [SMIS]
Schrader, O. Szemenenyi. An den Quellen des lateinischen Wortschatzes.
Streadbeck, Arval L. "Germanic languages." Grolier Encyclopedia on CD-ROM. Grolier Electronic Publishing.
Szemerenyi, O. Scripta Minoa 4. [SM]
Vennemann, Theo "Bemerkung zum frühgermanischen Wortschatz." Fs. Matzel, Heidelberg 1984, 105-19.
--- "Etymologische Beziehungen im Alten Europa", Der GinkgoBaum: Germanistisches Jahrbuch für Nordeuropa 13 (1995), 39-115.
--- "Some West Indo-European words of uncertain origin." Fs. Fisiak. Berlin 1997, I.879-908.
--- "Germania Semitica: *ploog-/*pleg-, *furh-/*farh-, *folk-/*flokk-, *felh-/*folg-", in: Fs. Eroms, Heidelberg 1998, 245-61.
--- "Andromeda and the Apples of the Hesperides." Karlene Jones-Bleyet al. (eds.). Proceedings of the Ninth Annual UCLA Indo-European
---Conference (Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph Series, 28), Washington, D.C. 1998, 1-68.
--- "Germania Semitica: Biene und Imme: Mit einem Anhang zu lat. apis", Sprachwissenschaft 23 (1998), 471-87.
--- "Zur Etymologie von Éire, dem Namen Irlands" Sprachwissenschaft 23 (1998), 461-469.
---"Remarks on some British place names." Fs. Irmengard Rauch, New York 1999, 25-62.
Waterman, John T. A History of the German Language. Seattle: U Wash P, 1966.
Watkins, Calvert. Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, rev. Boston: Houghton, 1985.

---Selected Writings.

Wordsworth English-German/German-English Dictionary. Ware, Herts UK: Wordsworth, 1994.

This page and all branching pages reflect the authors' point of view and do not represent the opinions and policies of the Mississippi University for Women.

To E-Mail Rick Mc Callister
Para mandarle correo electrónico a Rick Mc Callister
rmccalli [at] sunmuw1[dot]muw[dot]edu

@, A, E, I, J, O, U
Ablu "apple" [NC Europe non-IE] > *ap[a]laz [Germanic] > aeppel [OE] > apple, limited to Germanic [e.g. OHG apful], Celtic [O Ir uball], Welsh afal; Italic [Oscan Abella "apple town"]; and Balto-Slavic [O Sl ablûko, OCS jabl'ko, Lith. óbuolas,] [cw, eh] possibly Thracian or Dacian (the gloss dinupula < *k'un-a:bo:la: [xd] of non-IE origin [am, eh]

Abel-n "apple tree" [see Lith. obelìs, OCS jablan',
O Ir aball, Welsh afall] [eh]
[cw sees *apalaz (Germanic) < IE *abel-] [cw]
[xd sees @blu as IE because if its wide distribution] [xd]
[yet /*b/ is not found in common IE; gg suggests IE *amlu- "type of fruit"] [gg]
[mcv notes G&I see < IE *s^amlu- > non-Analtolian IE amlu-
see Hitt. samaluwanza "apple tree", Palaic samluwa-] [g&i cit. mcv]
[mcv adds tv sees < Afor-Asiatic root *?abal- "testicles"] [tv cit. mcv]

ab- "water" [seen by Hamp, Huld & Beekes as non-IE, but rejected by xd] [xd]

adhra"waterway, channel" [*pre-Norse],
oe:dre, oedr "channel, artery, vein, fountain, river, cataract" [OE],
Ader "vein" [tv95]

aduso:/n, adusso:/n > adesa [OE] > adze
[?rel. to Basque haitz "stone, rock", aitzur "mattock"]
[[?]Vasconic *aDiz < *anitsa < *kanis; aDiz-to "knife"] [ Michelena cit. mcv]
[lt notes in modern Basque, haitz means "crag",
but evidence from compounds suggests it once meant "stone"
The strictly Roncalese ainzto ~ aizto "knife",
like haitzur et al. may contain haitz] [lt]

ae:laz > *ela- < Aal m., eel [bc, ecp, jtw, tv84]

aecse [OE] > ax, axe
[[?]Vasconic"; see Basque aizkora "axe, hatchet"] [tv95, tv97]
[gg, lt et al. see Basque aizkora, haizkora < Latin aiscola] [gg, lt]
[gg sees aecse < IE *H2ek^- "sharp"] [gg]
[mcw sees possible analogy with (h)ai(t)z-
or metathesis asciola > aizkola, etc.] [mcv]
[cw sees aecse < Germanic *akwesi:, *akusyo:- < IE *agwesi: "ax"] [cw]

airo "oar"
[< Finnish/aboriginal non-IE Baltic lang?] [rc]

aithei "father" [Gothic] [[?]Vasconic"] [tv97]

al- > al-na > allaz > all, also [cw, rc]
[gg sees this rel. to Latin alius] [gg]

albaz/albiz > aelf [OE] > elf; alfr [ON] > oaf [cw]
[cw relates this to *albho-, source of Latin albus "white"]

aliso/eliso > *alisa: [Celtic], *alisa [Gothic] > Erle f., aller > alder;
rel. ?aliso [Spanish];
[< Vasconic?, e.g. Basque altza]
[lt notes it is widely suspected Basque altza
shares a common origin with aliso
but there is no conclusive proof] [lt]
[acc. cw < IE *ei- "red, brown"] [g&i, tv1/99]
[xd adds Slavic jelicha, Russ. ol'cha,
Lithuanian alksnis,
Latin alnus < *alisnos
and feels this distribution marks it as IE] [xd]
[?rel to ellen, ellaern [OE] > elder? cw]

alka [ON] > auk
[acc. cw [?]*ei- "red, brown"] [cw, rc]

Als (Danish island toponym) [sp]

Alr(-oe) (Danish island toponym) [sp]

ang-ra-m "pasture, grassland" > Anger "pasture-ground"
[[?]Vasconic"; see Basque angio, angi, angia "meadow";[tv97]
[rel. rejected by lt et al.]
[lt notes a Celtic origin is suspected
because -io doesn't look native] [lt]
[acc. gg < *h2eg^ro- "field"] [gg]

ankle, Enkel < anka "Hinterhaupt, blied" [OHG];
hanka [Germanic] > ?Romance hancha "hip", > haunch
see Basque anka, hanka "foot, lower extremity of animal"] [tv95]
[lt et al. see Basque anka < Romance < Frankish hanka "haunch"] [lt]

arnuz, aro:n > Aar, earn "eagle" [OE] [tv97]
Örn [Swedish], Adler [< edel-ar "noble bird/raptor"] [tt]
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk. arû;
but see also Basque arrano] [tv97]
[lt notes Basque arrano < arranno] [lt]
[acc. tt, prob. rel Greek ornis "bird"]

astio, aschio "grudge, hate" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

athal- "race, family" > Adel m. "nobility" > atheling;
> *o:thal > edili > edel "noble"
[?rel. Gk. atallein "to foster"] [cw, jtw]
Adler < edel-ar "noble bird/raptor" [tt]

athnam "year [dat. pl.] [Gothic], annus [Latin]
[[?]Vasconic"] [tv97]
[gg sees IE *aus- "to dawn";
e.g. Latin aurora, Gr eos, Sanskrit usah] [gg]
[lt states there is no similar form in Basque
that Basque "year" is urte] [lt]

east, Osten m. [bc, jtw]
[cw < Germanic *aust- < IE *aus- "to shine"] [cw]

ebura [pre-Germanic] > Eber, eofor [OE] "boar"
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk appâru "wild boar"] [tv97]

ebb, Ebbe f. [bc, jtw]

échanson "cupbearer" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

écrevisse "crayfish" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Eidam, a?um "son-in-law" [[?]Vasconic"] [tv97]
[lt states there is no such form in Basque
that Basque "son-in-law" is suhi ~ suin < *suni] [lt]

e:thi: > *a:thi: [N. Germanic] > ae:?r [ON] > eider
[acc. cw [?] *e:ti:?] [cw, rc]

Eisvogel "kingfisher" [OE i:searn "ice eagle"]
[< Vasconic?, rel. to Halcyon?;
< root similar to *iz-arano "water eagle", [tv1/99]
[lt rejects *iz, questions *arno] [lt]
*izar-arno "star bird"] [mcv]

émoi "emotion" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Ente f. "duck"; önd [Sw. and, Old Norse]; [jtw]
[acc. tt, may be related to Lat anas 'duck' ]
[but the Germanic cognate for Latin anser" is
goose, Gans; c.f Greek chans] [kat]

ertho: > eortha [OE] > earth; Erde
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Sem. ?-r-C] [tv95, tv97]
[gg suggests IE *er- "to plow"] [gg]

e:wa "law" ["Gesetz"] [OHG] [tv84]

Iltis m. "polecat" [jtw]

Imme [tv84]

i:sa > Eis, ice
[[?]Vasconic", e.g. Basque izotz "frost, ice"] [tv97]
[lt notes Basque izotz "frost, ice" contains hotz "cold"
but suggests initial element is ihintz ~ intz `dew' < *initz] [lt]

*i:sarno [Celtic, Germanic] > iron, Eisen n.
[[?]Vasconic *isar "star";
see Basque izar "star"] [mcv2/98, tv2/98]
[mcv sees < Semitic *3iTtar, *?ic^tar
also notes Berber is^ri, IIRC
IE *(H2)ster-] [mcv]
[gg suggests IE *ais-; see Latin aestus] [gg]
[xd sees this as regular reflex of
IE *e:sr-no- "the bloody (red) metal"] [IGG cit. xd]

Jolle f., jolly-boat "dinghy" [jtw]

oak, Eiche
[[?]Vasconic; see Basque agin "evergreen oak"]
[lt notes the common Basque word is arte] [lt]

o:bjan "holy work" > offering, Opfer; opus "work" [Latin]
[[?] Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk. epu:s^u] [tv95]

Urliuge "war" [OHG] [jtw]

baita "hut, cabin" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

bakam "back" > back [rc]

bakke [M Eng] "bat"
[acc. cw [?] *blak- "to strike" (Germanic) < IE *bhlag- "to strike"] [cw]

balcone "balcony" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

balthaz "bold" > bald, beald [OE] > bold, bald; bald [OHG] > bawd
[acc. cw [?]IE *bhol-to < *bhel- "to blow, swell, etc."] [cw]

Bann m. "a decree, a spell", banns, banish, bannir "to banish" [Fr < Germanic] [jtw, tv84]

baron [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

bazya- > Beere f.; berige, berie [OE] > berry
[acc. cw [?]IE *bha:- "to shine"] [cw, jtw]

beam, Baum "tree" m. [tv84]

bear, Bär m. [bc]

bha-un > *bauno [Germanic > be:an [OE] bean; Bohne f.
[acc. cw < IE *bha-bha "broadbean", root of fava (Latin)] [cw, jtw, tv84]

birch, Birke
[[?]Vasconic; see Basque burki ~ urki] [tv95]
[Vasconists inclined to see this as a loan from IE,
but there are no established case of direct loans from Germanic] [lt3/99]

bison, Wisent [from Hutterer] [tv84]

bitten [tv84]

blé "wheat" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

blestre [OF] > blister
[acc. cw [?]*bhlei- "to blow, swell" < bhel-] [cw]

blood, Blut n. [lt, tv84]

boat, Boot n. [bc]

Bogen m., bow [bc, jtw]

bone, Bein n. [bc, rc]

botm [OE] > "bottom"; bodem [Dutch] > bottomry, [rel to fundus (Latin)] [gg]
[acc. cw [?] IE *bhudh-] [cw, gg]

braes [OE] > brass
[?rel ferrum (Latin)?] [cw]

brák- > "trousers" [Germanic, Celtic] > bróks [Germanic] > bro:c, bre:c [pl] [OE] > breech, breeches, breeks;
*bráka [Gaulish] > Latin bráca "trousers" > bracket, brail [cw, rc]
[xd notes Gaulish bra:ca : Latin suffra:go: "jarret" < IE *bhra:g- "cul"] [QLW cit. xd]

brant [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

bread, Brot n. [jtw]

bregdan "to move jerkily" > "to shimmer" > bregdan "to move quickly, to weave, braid" > braid
[acc. cw [?]IE *bherek "to shine, glitter" < bhereg- "to shine, bright, white"] [cw]

brehwo "eyelash, eyelid" > bra: [ON] > brae
[acc. cw [?]IE *bherek "to shine, glitter" < bhereg- "to shine, bright, white"] [cw]
[?same as IE *bhru- "brow"?] [cw]

bre[w]an > brehsmo "to shine" [W. Germanic] > bresme [O Fr] > bream
[acc. cw [?]IE *bherek "to shine, glitter" < bhereg- "to shine, bright, white"] [cw]

brigdil [W Germanic] > bri:del [OE] > bridle; bri:del "bride" > bride
[acc. cw [?]IE *bherek "to shine, glitter" < bhereg- "to shine, bright, white"] [cw]

bring, bringen [als]

broad, breit [als, cw, d. p&a]

brudhiz > bride, Braut f. [rc]

brugyo > brycg/e [OE] > bridge
[cognates in Celtic & Slavic]
[acc. cw *bhru- "brow"] [cw]
[xd notes Gaulish bri:ua "bridge"
(e.g. toponyms Caro-briua, Briuo-duron etc.),
Germanic *bro:wo: & *bruwwi: > bridge etc.,
OCS bruvuno "poutre, rondin", Serbian brv "passerelle"
(prob. the original meaning)] [xd]

Brünne, broigne "suit of armor?" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

bukkaz "male goat, deer, etc." > bok [Dutch], boc [OHG] > Bock, buc [OE], bucca [OE] > buck; bukkos "male goat" [Celtic; ?source of bukkaz?] > boc "buck" [OFr] > butcher
[acc. cw < ?IE *bhugo-] [cw]
[found only in Celtic & Germanic?] [rmcc]
[xd sees bukkaz as an expressive gemination of *bhug'o-
e.g. Avestic buza] [xd]

buole "bully" (West Germanic) [rc]

Busk > bush, Busch m. [< IE bheue-?] [cw]

bycgean [OE] > buy; buggian O Sax ; bugyan [Goth.] [tlm]

bygge, byge, bigge [Northumbria c. 1250] > big [tlm]
[gg suggests < ?*meg^- "much, great"; with *m- > *b- ] [gg]

byggja "to purchase a woman" [O Ice.] [tlm]

dam, Damm "embankment, dike, dam" [tv84]

dagaz > day, Tag [cw]
[acc. cw < IE "*agh- with initial d- of obscure origin"]

dan- "low ground, den" >
*dan-jam > denn [OE] > den; Dene [OE] > Dane [cw, rc]

Dauer "duration", du:ra:re "to last" [Latin]
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk du:ru/m "long time, hard"] [tv97]

dengeln [tv84]

Dieb m., thief [jtw]

Diener, Dirne [tv84]

Distel f, thistle [jtw]

docga > dog "dog, mastiff" (Anglo-Saxon) [< Celtic?]

Dorsch m. "young cod [scrod]" [jtw]

dove, Taube [tv84]

dreug- >"dry" > drought;
*deug-iz > dry, Trocken; >
*draug-n > drain [cw, rc]

drink, Trinken [als, bc, d, p&a]

drive [als, d, p&a]

dub-/dup- "drop, drip, dip" > dip, dope, dump, didapper [cw, rc]

dud "shake, dodder" > dote, dodder, ?Zittergreis "dodderer" [cw, rc]

dumb, dumm "stupid" [als]

dunga "dung" > dung, Dung m. [jtw, rc]

dunum "fortified place" [Celtic] ?> du:naz [Germanic] > du:n "hill" [OE] > down; >
du:ne [M Dutch] > dune;
*tu:naz [Germanic, [?] Celtic *du:n-o- "hill, stronghold"?] "fortified place" > town, Zaun
[Celtic & Germanic only]
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see AKK dunnunu "fortified"] [cw, tv97]
[xd notes cw/SW rel. Hittite tuhhusta "finish, come to an end, come full circle" &
Latin fu:-nes- < *dhu:-;
but is suspicious because it is a root-etymology] [SW cit. xd]

See also P

fagra- > faeger "beautiful" [OE] > fair [cw]
[acc. cw *pek "pretty"]

fagin-/fagan- "to enjoy" > faegen [OE] "joyful, glad" > fain, fawn [cw]
[acc. cw *pek "pretty"]

faîte "First" [covering of a bastion] [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Falke, Falk [Swedish], falcon [< Fr < Germanic] [tt]

Fehde, feud [from Schmidt] [jtw, tv84]

feige, fey "cowardly" [from Schmidt] [tv84]

flask, Flasche [tv84]

Fleisch n., flesh [jtw, tv84]]

finger, Finger m. [lt]

flank, Flanke, flanc [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

flee, fliehen [from Schmidt] [tv84]

flise, vlise "stone slab, floor-stone" [MLG] > Fliese "floor-stone, paving tile"
[< ?Vasconic] [Vennemann considers it "weak"] [tv97]
[lt reject this; states Pre-Basque had no */f/;
no word-initial */p/;
and no word-initial consonant clusters] [lt]

Fock "foresail" [from Schmidt 1969] [tv84]

folk, Volk n. [jtw, rc]

frankon- "javelin, free, Frank", franc [Fr < Germanic] [rc, tv84]

Friede m. "peace" [jtw]

froc "habit [monk, nun], skirt" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

fronce "flounce, wrinkle?" [Fr < Germanic],
fruncir [Sp < Germanic] "to flounce, wrinkle" [tv84]
[?same as German Runzel]

fugla- > fowl, Vogel m. [cw, d, p&a, wb]
[acc. cw, "possible but unlikely"
< ? IE *pleu- > *fleug-ika > *fluglaz?]
[?how rel. to pullus (Latin)]

Fur (Danish island toponym) [sp]

furxti:n > fryhta [OE] > fright
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic" *puluxt-,
see Akkadian puluhtu/m] [tv97]

fyrs [OE] > furse [cw]

See also H
See also K
See also W

gaal [Dutch] "restbarrow" [ecp]

gagana/gagina "against, in a direct line with" > gegn "straight, direct, hepful" [ON] > gainly, [un]gainly;
gegn- "against" [OE] > gainsay;
*ana-gagina > ongean, onge:an [OE] "again, against, back" > again, against;
gegin, gagan [OHG] > gegenschein [cw, rc]
[?rel to go, gehen?]

gagl- > "gale" [ecp]

gans- > Gans f. goose [jtw]
[but cw and most others see this as IE *ghans-]

gar > *garwian "to make, prepare, equip";
*garwi- "equipment, adornment" > garb, garbo [via It.];
*garwa- "prepared" > yare; *garwín > gear [cw, rc]

garbo:n "sheaf" [pre-Germanic] > Garbe "sheaf";
garwa [W Germanic] > garwo:n [W Germanic] > yarrow
[[?]Vasconic [?]pre-Basque *gerwa < *gerba;
see Basque garba "bundle, sheaf", garba, gerba "sheaf-like flower",
see also Spanish garfa "hook, claw", grapa "staple"] [tv95, tv97]
[?rel. to Germanic *gar- in sense of "to assemble, collect"]
[lt notes Basque garba restricted to French Basque country
and < Béarnais garba < Germanic
] [lt]

garden, yard, Garten
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic",
see Phoen. q-r-t "city"]; see Rus. gorod [tv97]

gay, gai [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

geben [tv84]

gedu > *ketu > cut [eh]

gersto: [pre-Germanic] > Gerste "barley"
see Basque gari "grain, wheat", garagar "barley"] [tv95, tv97] [lt states gari < gali

ghaid- [pre-Germanic/pre-Italic] > *ghaid-i- "buck" [Germanic] goat, gaits [Gothic]; Latin haedus "kid"
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Assyrian gadu: "goat", Akk gadû, Hebrew g-d-i: "kid"] [tvgb/94, tv97]

gheldh- "to pay" [Germanic & Slavic] > *geldam "payment" > geld, gield [OE] "payment, service" > geld, Danegeld, gelt; > gelt "payment, reward" [OHG] > gelt [cw]
[?rel. to ghl-to-, root of "gold"?]

gn- [acc. cw [?]IE *ghen-] [cw]
gnaga "to bite" [ON] > nag [cw]
gnagan [OE] > gnaw [cw]
gnag-sk- > gnasko:n > nascon "to nibble" [OHG] > nosh [cw]
gnatt "biting insect" > gnaet [OE] > gnat [cw]

grafo-, gravo- > Graf m. "count [nobilty]", grave [M Dutch] > margrave, palsgrave [jtw]

grat-, krat- "to scratch" [cw, rc]
grat- > grater [O Fr < Germanic] > grate [cw, rc]
krat- > kratto:n > cratsen "to scrape" [M Dutch] > scratch [cw, rc]

gre:waz > graeg [OE] > gray, grey; ? >grighund [OE] > greyhound
[acc. cw *gher- "to shine, glow, gray"] [cw]
gri:syaz "gray" > gris [Fr] > grisaille, grison, grizzle; griseus "grayish" [Med Latin] griseous
[acc. cw *gher- "to shine, glow, gray"] [cw]

gunthyo: "battle" [tv84, my sp.]

gwet- "resin?" [Celtic & Germanic] > *gwet-u > kwithu- [OE] > cwudu, cwidu, cudu "resin, mastic gum, cud, i.e. something chewed" [OE] > cud, quid; > *betu- "birch, birch resin" [Celtic] > bitumen [Latin < Gaulish] > bitumen, [cw] > betún "bitumen, wax, asphalt, shoe polish, etc." [Sp]
[xd notes Latin bitu-men, may be from Osco-Umbrian
also notes O.Ind. jatu- "Lack, Gummi"] [EWAia cit. xd]

See also G
See also K
See also L
See also N
See also R

Habicht m. "hawk", Hök [Swedish], HaukR [Runic Norse], hawk; [jtw, tt]

Hafen m. "harbor" [jtw]

Haff "bay", haef [O Sax], haf [ON] [jtw]

Hahn m. "cock, rooster" [jtw]

hakan-, ha:kon, ho:ka "hook, peg, crook"
see Basque gako ~ kako "key", kako "hook, peg, crook"]
[acc. cw, [?] IE *keg- "hook, tooth"] [cw, tv97]
[lt notes gako ~ kako "key" seems to be a loanword] [lt]
hake "hook" [MLG] > harquebus [cw, tv97]
haki "hook" [ON] > hake [cw, tv97]
hakila- > hekel "hatchel, flax comb with hooklike teeth' [M Dutch] > heckle [cw, tv97]
hakkiyan > haccian [OE] > to hack [cw, tv97]
ho:c [OE] > hook; [cw, tv97]
Haken "hook, peg, crook/ed" [cw, tv97]

halbaz > healf [OE] > half [cw]
[acc. cw *skelp- < *skei- "to cut"]

haldan "to keep or drive cattle, etc." > healdan [OE] > hold; haltan "to stop, hold back" [OHG] > halten, halt;
houden "to hold" [M Dutch] > avast
[cw rel. this to Latin celer "swift"
sees both [?]IE *kel- "to drive, set in swift motion"] [cw, als, d, p&a]

haltha- "slope, slant, incline" > Halde "slope, hillside", heald [OE] "hillside"
see Basque alde, alte [?]*kalde "side, flank"] [tv95, tv97]

hand, Hand f. [p&a, rc]

harbista [pre-Germanic] > harvest, Herbst,
carpere [Latin]
karpós "fruit" [Gr]
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk harpu "Fall"] [tv97]

harja > Heer, here [OE] "army"
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk qarâbu "war, battle"] [tv95, tv97]
herald < Fr heraut < Frk *herialt < *xariwald- < *xarjaz "army" + *wald- "rule" [Onions, ODEE cit. mw]
arimanno "warrior" [It < Germanic] [tv84]
[< Germanic *xaryaz "army" + *mannaz "man"] [mw]

Harke f. "rake" [jtw]

Harn "urine"
see Basque garnur "urine" < *kernu] [tv95, tv97]
[lt questions *kernu] [lt]

harpo: [pre-Germanic] > harp, Harfe
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
maybe rel. to *harbista, see *harpo:n "to pluck"] [tv97]

hastro "Band [tape, ribbon]" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

hatas > Hader "quarrel", hea?u- "war" > [OE] hate; Haß, haine "hate" [Fr < Germanic]
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see pre-Sem. k'-t-]
[see Gr ke:dos "worry, grief" Welsh cawdd "anger"] [tv84, tv95, tv97]

hatchet, hache [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Hechel [jtw, tv84] [Agriculture]

Hecke, haie "file [of soldiers]" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Hede [jtw] [Agriculture]

Helm m., helmet [bc, jtw]

Hengst m. "stallion" [jtw]

Henne f., hen [jtw]

herald, hérault [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Herd m. "stove" [jtw]

Herr "man, gentleman, lord" [jtw]

herring, Hering m. [rc]

Herzog m. "duke" [jtw]

hissen "to hoist" [jtw]

hlaupan "to leap"
[acc. cw [?]IE *klou- "to bend" but likely unknown] [cw]
hle:apan [OE] > leap, hle:apwi:nce [OE] > lapwing; hlaupa "to leap" [ON] > loopen "to leap, run" [M Dutch] > [inter]loper;
lo:p "course, running" [MLG] > lopp "course" [Swedish] > gauntlet; hlouffan "to leap" [OHG] > Lauf "race" > langlauf;
galoper [OFr] > gallop;
waloper [O North Fr] > wallop;
aloper "to run away with a lover" [Anglo-Norman] > elope [cw]
"lot, portion" > hlot [OE] > lot, lot [Dutch] > lottery, lot [OFr] > lotto, allot
[acc. cw [?]IE *kleu- "hook" but semantically obscure] [cw]
"to pinch, close eyes, etc." [acc. cw *ken-] [cw]
hnappian "to doze, nap" [OE] > nap [cw]
ne:p[flo:d] "neaptide" [OE] > neap [tide] [cw]
nipen [M Dutch] > nip [cw]
hnöggr "miserly", nigard [M Eng] > nigard "miser" [obs. Eng] [cw]
noppe "pile" [M Dutch] > nap [cw]
nibbeln [LGer] > nibble [cw]
notten "to nod" [MHG], nodden [M Eng] > nod [cw]

hn- "to compress"
[acc. cw *ken-] [cw] [same root as *hn- above?]
hnekk- "neck, narrow or compressed part" > hnecca [OE] > neck; hnakur "saddle" [ON], hnakki "back of neck" > knacker
[?rel. to nuca "back of neck" (Sp)?]
hnutu [OE] > nut
[acc. cw, rel. to nux "nut" (Latin)]
hnukk- > nocke "tip of a bow" [M Dutch], nokke [M Eng] > nock
nok "projection, hook"[Norw dial] > nok [M Eng] > nook
"court, courtyard" [tv84]

honte "shame" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

horst/hurst "grove" [OS, OHG, MLG] [eh]

Huld [tv84]

Huhn n. "chicken" [jtw]

hupp- > hoppe [M Dutch] > hop plant [cw]
[acc. cw, *skeup- "cluster"]

husam > house, Haus n.
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk hussu "cane hut" < *khu:sV] [rc, tv97]

K, Q
See also G
See also H
Kahn m. "rowboat" [jtw]

kak- "round object" > koek "cake", koekje [Dutch] > cookie;
kaka [ON] > cake;
köke "cake" [MLG] > cockaigne;
kuocho "cake" [OHG] > kuchen, quiche [cw, lt, rc]

kalbaz > calf, Kalb
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk ?alpu/m "cattle"] [bc, jtw, tv97]

kalh- > callow [[?]Vasconic"] [tv97]

kante [Celtic, Germanic, Italic non IE] > Kante "edge"
[[?]Vasconic; see Basque kantu "slice, angle, rocks",
common in Iberian toponymy] [tv97, tv95]
[lt sees 2 Basque words of Romance origin
kanto, kantoin, kantu ~, k(h)antu "side, edge, vicinity, angle, slice" < late Latin cantu,
see Castilian canto "extremity, side, point, corner", "crust, slice", as well as
cantón "corner" and
kantu "rock, boulder" < Ibero-Romance,
see Spanish canto "stone"] [lt]
[xd notes Gaulish canto- "edge, circle";
notes SM states < IE *kmto- < *kem- "cover"] [SM cit. xd]

Karpfen m., carp [bc]

Kaupo > caupo: [Latin] < Germanic; chap, cheap, kaufen [cw, tlm]

Karlaz "man." > ceorl "man" [OE] > churl;
karl "man, freeman" [ON] > carl, carling [cw]

kaur-yan > keyra "to drive" [ON] > skijoring
[acc. CW [?]IE *ge:u-] [cw]

keel, Kiel m. [bc, jtw]

ker-, kr-n > "horn"
[acc. tv, [?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"; Sem. q-r-n "horn",
found in W. IE]
[also "head", acc cw] [cw, tv97]
kr-n > hurnaz > horn, Horn; cornu: "horn" [Latin] [cw, tv97]
kr-s-n > hurznuta > hyrnet [OE] > hornet [cw]
kr-ei > hraina > hreinn "reindeer" [ON] > reindeer; hrinda > hrind "ox" [OHG] > Rinder "cattle", rinderpest [cw]
kr@s-no- > kranion "skull" > cranium, migraine [cw]
kr-@- > kare:, kara "head" > charivari, cheer, cara "face" [Sp]; karoun "to stupify, to be stupified" [Gk] > carotid; katato:n [Gk] > carrot [cw]
kri: > krios "ram" [Gk] > criosphinx [cw]
ker-wo- > cervus "deer" [Latin]; cervix "neck" [Latin] [cw]
keru-do- > herutaz > heorot [OE] > hart [cw]
ker@s- > keras "horn" [Gk]; sar "head" [Pers] [cw]
ker@s-ro > cerebrum [Latin] [cw]
koru- > korumbos "uppermost point, head" [Gk] > corymb, koruphe: "head" [Gk] > coryphaeus [cw]
koru-do- > korudos "crested lark" [Gk] > corydalis [cw]
koru-na > korune: "club" > cornyebacterium [cw]

khro:t'o [pre-Germanic] > hro:t'/a > Ruß "soot",
[same as rot or rust?]
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic" *qutru] [tv97]

kidh "kid" > child, kid, Kind n. [rc]

king, König m. [bc, jtw]

klip [Dutch], cliff, Klippe "sea rock" [als, tv84]

knapon > "boy" > Knabe m. "boy", knave [rc]

kn- > "to compress into a ball"
[acc. cw [?] *gen-?] [cw]
kn-a-pp- > cnaepp "hilltop" > knap,
cnoppen [M Dutch] "to snap",
knappen "to snap" [MLG] > knap, knapsack;
cnop [OE] > knop [cw]
kn-a-k- > knacken "to crack" [MHG] > knackwurst [cw]
kn-a-r- > knart "know in wood" [Norw] > knarre "knob" [M Eng] > knar;
knor "a swelling" [M Eng] > knur [cw]
kn-u-b- > knobbe,
knubbe "knot in wood, knob" [MLG] > knob, nub [cw]
kn-u-k- > cnocian [OE] > knock;
gnocco, nocchio "knot in wood" [It < Germanic] > gnocchi;
knökel [MLG], knakel [M Eng] > knuckle [cw]
kn-u-l- > cnyllan [OE] "to strike" > knell, knoll;
cnoll [OE] > knoll [cw]
kn-u-p- > cnoppe [M Dutch] "knob, bud" > knobkerrie [cw]
kn-u-t- > cnytten [OE] "to tie in a knot, knit" > knit;
cnotta [OE] "knot in cord" > knot;
knu:tr "knot in cord" [ON] > knout [cw]
kn-u-th- > knodo "knob, knot" [OHG] > quenelle [Fr] > quenelle [cw]
kn-i:-b- > cni:f > knife [cw] [see below]
kn-e-th- > cnedan [OE] > knead [cw]
[?how do these relate to Sp. nudo, ñudo?]

knife, knyft "pocketknife" [W Fries],
kni:fr [Scandinavian],
Kneif/Kneip "pocketknife",
canivet [O Fr],
canif "large pocketknife" [Fr],
Basque ganibet, kanibet "pocket knife"
[[?]Vasconic] [tv95]
[lt sees Basque ganibet, kanibet "pocket knife" as
a loan from Germanic via Romance] [lt]

knight, Knecht m. "farmhand" [bc]

koll- > colla "agony, torture" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Kosten, costian "try, prove, taste" [OE], [tlm]

kr- "curving, crooked"
[acc. cw [?] IE *ger-?; see tv below] [cw]
kra:ppo:n "hook" > kra:pfo "hook, claw" > agraffe;
graper "to harvest grapes [O Fr < Germanic] > grape;
grapon [O Fr < Germanic] > grapnel; [cw]
grappa "vine stem, brandy" [It dial < Germanic] > grappa;
crumb/crump "crooked, bent, stooping" [OE] > crummie, crumpet, crumple [cw]
krimpen "to wrinkle" [LG] > crimp [cw]
crampe "hook" [M Dutch], *kramp "hook" [Frankish] > cramp [cw]
krampfo "a cramp" [OHG], O Fr [< Germanic] crampe > cramp [cw]
crypel [OE] > cripple [cw]
kreupan > cre:opan [OE] > creep [cw]
krink "a ring" [MLG] > cringle [?rel to "ring"? [?]hring?] [cw]
krengan > cringan "to yield" [OE] > cringe [cw]
crinkelen "to make kinks in" [M Dutch] > crinkle [cw]
kriki "a bend, nook" [ON] > creek [cw]
kro:kr "a hook" [ON] > crook [cw]
kro:k [Frankish] "hook" > croc "a hook" [O Fr] > crochet, crocket, croquet, crouch, encroach [cw]
crycc "bent staff, crutch" [OE] > crutch [cw]
crosse "crook" [O Fr < Germanic] > crosier, lacrosse [cw]
crulle "curly" [M Dutch] > cruller, curl [cw]
[?rel. crispus (Latin)?]
cranc-staef "a weaving implement" [OE] > crank [cw]
krake "a sickly beast" [Norw], crok [M Eng] "old ewe" > crock [cw]
karpa "to boast [ON] > to carp [cw]
kroes "curled" [M Dutch], grosele [O Fr < Germanic] "gooseberry" > grossularite [cw]
[?also gooseberry < groseberry?] [cw]

kr- "rounded mass, collection"
[acc. cw [?]IE *ger-] [cw]
cruma "fragment" [OE] > crumb [cw]
kruppa "rump" [Frankish],
croup "rump" [O Fr < Germanic] > croup, croupier, crupper [cw]
cropp "cluster, bunch, ear of corn" [OE] > crop [cw]
gruppo [It [?]Germanic] > group [cw]
crocc "pot" [OE] > crock [cw]
cruyse "pot" [M Dutch] > cruse [cw]
cribb "manger" [OE] > crib [cw]
cradel [OE] > cradle [cw]
kripya "cradle" [Frankish],
cresche "crib" [O Fr < Germanic] > crèche
craet "wagon" [OE], kartr "wagon" [ON] > cart [cw]
croft "small enclosed field" [OE] > croft [cw]

krab- > krafla "to crawl" [ON] > crawl
[acc. cw [?] IE *gerbh] [cw]

Krabbe, Krebs, crab
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk aqrabu]
[see Gr. kárabos "crab", skorpiós]
[acc. cw, Germanic *krabb < IE *gerbh- "to scratch"] [cw, tv95, tv97]

k'rimp'an "tense, cramped" > krapfo "hook, claw" > cramp, Krampf; krapfen "fritters, donut"
see ?pre-Basque *garba "broke, junk", *krapo "claw, clip, junk"] [tv95, tv97]
[pre-Basque *garba rejected by lt] [lt]
[acc. cw [?] IE *ger-] [cw]

Krippe f., crib [jtw]

ku- "hollow, round, lump" [cw, rc]
kubo:n "hut, shed, room" > cofa "bedchamber, closet" [OE] > cove;
cubbe "pen, stall" [M Dutch] > cubby;
*kuba-wald "house ruler" [Germanic] > kobolt [MHG] > cobold, kobold [cw]
kutam > cot [OE] > cot, cottage [cw]
kuto:n > cote "shelter" [OE] > cote [cw]
k[e]ud- > codd "bag, husk" [OE] > cod;
cudele "cuttlefish" (refers to ink bag) [OE] > cuttle [cw]
k[e]ut- > cieter "intestines" [OE] > chiterling [M Eng] > chitterlings, chitlins [cw]
kukk- > cok "haycock, pile of straw" [M Eng] > cock [cw]
kuk- > ci:cen [OE] > chicken [cw]
kugg- > kugge "cog" M Swedish], cog [cw]
kuggila > cygel [OE] > cudgel [cw]
keulaz > kielswin [LG] > kielson;
kiel [M Dutch] > keel [cw]
ku:p > ku:pe "cask, tub, barrel" [M Dutch] > cooper [cw]
kunt > kunte [MHG] > cunte [M Eng] [cw]
ku:ra: > ku:ra: "to crouch, lay in wait" [Ice.],
couren [M Eng] > cower [cw]
ku:ga "to oppress" [O Norse] > to cow [cw]

ku:z/e [HG 15th c.] > Kauz [type of owl]
[?< Vasconic *kuwonts/a > *k^u:nts > *k^u:ts,
see Basque untz, untza, ontza] [tv97]
[lt suggests the word is imitattive] [lt]

quabbeln "to tremble, shake like jelly" [LG],
quaven "to tremble" > quaver
[acc. cw [?] IE * gwe:bh-] [cw]

quac "unguent, liquid" [M Dutch" > quacksalver
[acc. cw [?] IE * gwe:bh-] [cw]

Quelle "spring, fountain"
[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"] [tv97]
[?rel. to "well"?]

See also H

l@k- > lake,
lacus [Latin],
loch [Gaelic]
[Celtic /o/ does not match Latin /a/,
suggesting it may have originally been /@/] [eh]
[xd adds Greek lakkos < *lakwos "cisterna",
OCS loky "cisterna"] [xd]
[xd refers to SMIS for explanation of a/o alternation] [SMIS cit. xd]

lamb, Lamm n. [bc, jtw]

lark, Lerche, Lärka [Swedish] [tt]

[[?]Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"] [tv97]

latha:- > Latte, Laden "slat, tailwood"
[see O Ir slat, Welsh llath "rod < *slatna:;
see Basque lata "shingle, board",
Span, Port lata, Cat llata, Fr. latte, It, Rhaet latta [?]pre-Germanic *laththo: (or cognate);
Latin la:tus has no good etymology] [tv95]

Laube "summerhouse?" [or from laub "leaf"?]
lubbione "laube" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

leak, Loch n. (hole), Leck n. (in ship) [als]

leap [bc, rc]

leather, Leder n. [jtw]

Lee f., lee [jtw]

leg [rc]

Leid "sorrow, woe" [tv84]

le:od "chief of social unit" [OE] [eh]

li:k- "body, form, like, same" [cw, rc]
li:c [OE] > like, lich gate, -ly; Leiche f. "body, corpse" [cw, rc]
gali:kaz > geli:c [OE] > alike;
aiwo [ever] gali:kaz > ae:lc [OE] > each [cw]
is-li:k > ilca [OE] > ilk [cw]
[fro]lijc [M Dutch] > frolic [cw]
li:kyan > li:cian [OE] > to like [cw]
hwa-li:k > which [cw]

live, leben [tv84]

loan, Lohn, lønn "reward" [Norw] [tlm]

lodge, loge [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Luft [tv84]

lugyom "oath" [Celtic, Germanic] > liuga "marriage" [Goth], luge [O Ir] [tlm]
[related to "league", "link"?]

lok-, luk- > Loh "Hain", also found in German toponyms
[[?]Vasconic] [tv95]

Luke f. "hatch [of ship]" [jtw]

lu:t- "small"
[acc. cw [?]IE *leud-] [cw]
luttilaz [W Germanic] > ly:tel [OE] > little [cw]
lu:tan [OE] > lout [cw]
lu:ta "to bend down" [ON] > lout [cw]
loteren "to shake, totter" [M Dutch], loitren [M Eng] > loiter [cw]

m@k-ú > *mag@th > maegethe, m@két, maegden [OE] "girl" > maiden [cw, eh]
m@k-ú > *me@k-ó > *me:kó > *mêkó- > *mégaz > mág "kinsman" [OE] [eh]
m@k-ú > *me@k-ó > *me:kó > *mêkó- > *me:kón- > *megan- > mága "son" [OE] [eh]
m@k-ú- > *m@kw-o- > *makwo "son" [Celtic] > macc [O IR], maqqa [Oghamic], mapo > mab > ap [Welsh] [eh]
m@ghu- > *magu "servant" > mug [O Ir], meu-dwy [Welsh] [eh]
maguz "son" > magu [OE], *magwi: > mawi [Gothic] [eh]
CW notes IE *maghu- "youth" [cw]

magge Dutch [?]"(eel)pout," [ecp]

mail- > ma:l "spot, blemish" [OE] > mole
[acc. cw [?]IE *mai-lo- [?]IE *mai "to soil, defile"] [cw]
[?rel. to macula (Latin) < non-IE] [cw]

maisk- > ma:sc, ma:cs, ma:x "mashed malt" [OE] > mash
[acc. cw [?]IE *meik- "to mix"] [cw]

manigoldo "rogue, scoundrel" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Marder m., marten [jtw]

markos > Mähre "mare, riding horse?", mare [Ger., Celt.]
[< Altaic?] [jtw, mcv]

mast, Mast m. [bc]

meat, Metzger "butcher" [d, p&a]

men-i- "small fish" > myne, mynwe [OE] > meneu [M Eng] > minnow
[acc. cw

mer- "to tie" > marren "to tie" [M Dutch] > marline;
mo:ren "to tie" [MLG] > moor

mere, Meer,
mare [Latin],
muir [Gaelic]
[non-correlation of vowels] [eh]

me:no:n > moon, Mond;
me:no:th > month, Monat
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk imnu: "to count";
see IE *me: "knife"] [tv97]

merg- "boundary, border" > mark- "boundary, border, to mark" [cw]
mearc [OE] > mark [cw]
mark "border" [M Dutch] > margrave [cw]
marc "border country" [OF] > march, marquis, marche [Fr < Germanic], marca [Med. Latin] > marchioness [cw, tv84]
marcare [It < Germanic] > to mark out [cw]
marc [OE], marke [MHG], mark [Swedish] > mark, Mark, merk, markka [money] [cw]
markya- "mark. border" > merki [ON] "mark" > marque [OF] > remark [cw]
mark:on [Frankish] > march[i]er "to trample" [OF] > marc, march [cw]
margo: "border, edge" [Latin] > margin [cw]
[?rel. to ?Etruscan? merk- "trade, commerce, etc."?] [rmcc]

mete, messen "to measure]
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"] [tv97]

mew (gull), Måk [Norw], Mås [Swedish], Mave [Gotland] Möwe f. "gull" [jtw, tt]

Moen (Danish island toponym) [sp]

Moos, mousse "foam" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

moraine, Moräne "moraine",
Mur[e] "pile of rocks [Bavarian]
[?< Vasconic;
see Basque murru] [tv97] [acc. lt, a recent word in Basque;
closest meaning to "hill" is "wall" in Baztan valley only] [lt]
[see also murus [Lat] "wall", muro "(exterior) wall" [Sp]
as well as morro "small promontory jutting into the sea" [rmcc]

Mors (Danish island toponym) [sp]

munthaz [Germanic] > munths [Gothic];
mu:th [OE] > mouth
[acc. cw < W IE *mn-to- < IE men- "projecting body part",
root of mo:ns (Latin)] [am, cw]

muspilli mythological hot southern land [sg]

See also H

Nabja "bird's beak" > neb, nib, nipple [cw]

Nachen [jtw] [seafaring and fishing term]

nehmen "to take, capture, accept" [tv84]

ne:hw-iz "near" > ne:ah [OE] > near; nah [cw, rc]

Netz n., net [jtw, tv84]

novigildo "Geldstraffe--neunfacher Geldbetracht, [monetary fine?]" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Norden m., north [bc, jtw]

See also F

patha- > path, pade [Finnish] Pfad m.
[< ?Akkadian pada:nu(m)?
< ?Vasconic *padan?
(?whence Bsq haran?] [ecp, mcv3/97, tv1/99]

per-at- > praten [Dutch] [ecp]

perap "press together > proppe "plug, wad" [Middle Dutch] [ecp]

perat "perceive, realize." > præt "trick, skill" [Old English] [ecp]

per-egh- "stick out." > preg "pointed stick" [Old English] [ecp]

peret "desire, love, be happy." > pret "fun" [Dutch] [ecp]

peri-gh- > priën "strive for" Middle Dutch [ecp]

Pflug m., plow [jtw]

philt'-a > [pre-W Germanic] > filt'a- [W Germanic] > felt, Filz
[< ?Vasconic";
see Basque bilho "mane, hair", bildots "lamb" > pre-Basque *pildo- "hair"] [tv95, tv97]

pier (earth)worm [Dutch] [ecp]

pig [tlm]

pisk- > fish, fisks [Goth],
piscus [Lat.],
íasc [Ir]
[W IE only] [am]

plegan "to pledge" [West Germanic] > pledge, play;
*plehti- > plight [cw, eh, rc]
(p < b) [eh]

preus- freeze; *prost > frost
[< ?Vasconic,
see Basque hotz < ? *host < *rost < *prost] [tv97]

prevelen "mumble" [Dutch] < "announce, say" [ecp]

Pugge, Pogge "frog, toad"
[< ?Vasconic;
see Basque puga "toad" ] [tv97]

pursa- "bog-myrtle." [ecp]

See also H

Rabe m., raven [jtw] [?same root as well]

rank, rang [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

rappa "schrund, krätze" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

rain, Regen m. [als, d, lt, p&a]

ratire, arraitire "to shriek" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Reh n. , roe [buck] [jtw]

Reiher m. heron [jtw]

Reede f., [sea] roads [jtw]

Reuse "fish trap/basket" [from Schmidt] [tv84]

rich, riche [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

ringen "to wrestle" [from Schmidt] [tv84]

risan "to rise" > rise [rc]

rocca "Rocken" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

rodd- [OE] > rod
[acc. cw Rogen m. [fish] roe [jtw]

Roß n. "steed", horse [jtw]

Rost/rösten, roast, rôtir [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Ruder n. "oar", rudder [bc]

Rüge "rebuke, reprimand" [tv84]

ru:no- "mystery, secret" [Germanic, Celtic] > ru:naz > ru:nian [OE] "to whisper" [OE] > round;
r:un [ON] > rune, runo "song, poem" [Finnish]

Note that /s + consonant/ may be the result of "mobile s"

Sache "legal case" [from Bach 1970] [tv84]

sail, Segel n. [bc]

saiwaz > sea, See f. "sea, lake" [als, bc, jtw, rc]

saljan "give, sell" [N Ger, Ingwaeonic] > sellan, syllan [OE] > sale, sell [cw, tlm]
[acc. cw *sel- "grasp, take"?]

salon, salle [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Sam[-s-oe] (Danish island toponym) [sp]

sa:n "sofort [immediately]" [OHG] [tv84]

Säule, sy:l [OE] "pillar
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"] [tv97]

scarf, scharf, écharpe [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

scerfa "trousseau, dowry" [It. dial. < Germanic] [tv84]

Schaf n., sheep [jtw]

Schild m., shield [bc, jtw]

schnarchen, snore, sarnacare, sarnacchiare "" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Schöffe, échevin "civil register/magistrate [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

Schinken, Schenkel m. "ham",
sceanca [OE] > shank
[< ?Vasconic;
see Basque zango, etc. "foot, bone" < pre-Basque *skanko [jtw, tv95]

schippire "to escape" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Schleuder f. "sling, catapult" [jtw]

Schloss/Schlüssel "castle, keep" [tv84]

Schuld "blame" [tv84]

Schultheiß [tv84]

schwören, swear [jtw]

Schrank, scranno "cupboard, wardrobe" [It. < Germanic] [tv84]

scop "poet" [cw]

selhaz > seolh [OE] > seal [cw, jtw, rc]
[acc. cw, prob. loanword from Finnish]

sebun > seven, sieben
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk sebu:/m]
[found in all IE and W. European languages] [tv95, tv97]

sgherro "robber" [tv84]

shoulder, Schulter f. [rc]

sick [rc]

sieden "to boil" [tv84]

silver, Silber n.
[?rel. Basque zilhar] < ?Vasconic < ?Afro-Asiatic
[?rel. Heb. barzel, Akk. parzillu] [tv2/98]

sinc "reward, gift" [OE, O Sax] [tlm]

sink, sinken [tv84]

six, sechs
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk ses^s^u; all IE] [tv95]

skalkaz "servant"
> Schalk
marko-skalkaz ["horse 'mare' servant" ] > marshal
sini-skalkaz > seneschal [cw, tlm, tv84]

skathla [N Germanic] > ska:ld [ON] > scolde [M Eng] > scold, skald [cw]
[acc. cw, *sekw- "to say, utter" > *skw-e-tlo- "narration"]

skatts "cattle" > "treasure" [Gothic], Schatz [tlm]

skipam > ship, skiff, schip [Dutch] Schiff n.,
schifo [it < Germanic],
équiper [Fr < Germanic] [bc, cw, jtw, rc]

sleu- possible base of several Germanic derivatives [cw]
slu:-m > slu:ma [OE] > slumber [cw]
slautyan > sle:te > sleet [cw]
sleura- > schlier "mud. slime" [MHG] > schlieren [cw]
sleug- > slug-, sluk- > slugg [Norw], slagga [Swedish] "slow moving person or animal"; slugge, sluggen [M Eng] > slug, sluggard [cw]
log "lazy, slack" [Dutch] > logy [cw]
Schlaf m., sleep [rc]

smalvir "to crush" [It. dial. < Germanic] [tv84]

snu- "nose" > snout,
Schnauze f.; etc. [rc]

sound, Sund [tv84]

south, Süd m. [bc, jtw]

spalto "bay-window, doorway" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Speck m., "bacon" [jtw]

Speiche f., spoke [jtw]

spell [eh]

Sperber, épervier "sparrow hawk" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]
[acc. tt, may be rel. to "sparrow" < IE *sper-] [cw]

Spieß m. "spear", spit [cooking],
épieu "spit" [Fr < Germanic] [jtw, tv84]

sprote, sprat [tv84]

spur, Sporn, espuela [Span < Germanic],
éperon [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

stake, stacca [It < Germanic],
estaca [Sp < Germanic] [tv84]

sta:dho [pre-Germanic] > sto:dha- [early Germanic] > stuot [OHG], Stute, Gestüt "mare" [tv95]

stam- "to push" > stammer, stumble [cw, rc]

stamberga "shed" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

stango: > Stange, stanga "pole" [It < Germanic],"[tv84, tv95]

staup "cooking pot" > stoup, stove [cw, rc]

staura > staurr "stake" [O Norse] [tv95]

Stehen "to stay?"[tv84]

steorra [OE] > star; sterno [OHG]
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic",
see Akkadian Ishtar] [tv97]

steer, Steur n. "rudder"
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"] [bc, jtw, tv97]

steura, theura > steer, Stier
[< Afro-Asiatic, ubiquitous in IE] [tv95]

stinco "shin, shinbone" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

stunkwan [Lehman] stink, stigqan "to push" [Gothic], stoßen "to push"
[< ?Vasconic;
see Basque zunka "blow to the head"] [tv97]

Stint [jtw] [seafaring and fishing term]

Storch, stork [bc, jtw] may be cognate with Gk torgos 'vulture' [tt]

strale "dart, arrow" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Strand m., strand "beach, fringe" [bc]

stropicciare "to rub, scrub" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

sturgeon [rc]

Sturm m., storm [jtw]

sühnen "to atone" [jtw]

Sünde "sin" [tv84]

Swallow [bird], Schwalbe, Svala [Swedish] [tt]

swart-, surt- "black" > swart, swarthy, Surtr [mythical fire giant]
[< ?Vasconic;
see Basque surtan "on fire"] [tv95, tv97]

swem- > *swimyan > schwimmen, to swim;
*swum-to > *sundam > sund "swimming, sea" [OE] > sound;
sonde "sounding line" [OF < Germanic] > sound [cw, jtw]
> swingan [OE] > swing;
*swangyan > swengan "to swing, shake" [OE] > swinge;
*swank- > swanken [MHG] > swank; swagga [Norw], swag [cw]

sword, Schwert n., [bc]

See also D
See also Z

tak "to take" > taka [ON] > take [cw, rc]

Takel n., tackle [jtw]

talgaz > Talg m., talow [OE] > tallow
[acc. cw < ? *IE *del- "to drip"] [cw, jtw, tv84]

tap- "plug" > tap, Zapfen m. [cw,rc]

tasca [It < Germanic], Tasche "pocket" [tv84]

thousand, tausend [from Bach 1970] [tv84]

taw- "to make" > heriot, taw, tow, tool [cw, rc]

tern, Terne, Swedish Tärna [may be onomatopoetic] [tt]

*teuta: "people"
[seen as non-IE by Hamp, Huld and Beekes; rejected by xd] [xd]

thing (assembly), Ding n. "a case before a court of law" [bc, jtw]

thur-p'a > thorp, dorf
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Sem d-u-r "circle";
see Latin tur-b-a "mob",
Gk túrbe: "loud, confusion",
thwerila > "twirl"] [tv84, tv95]

tiber [OE] "offering, sacrifice",
[Unge]ziefer "vermin"
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Akk zi:bu "offering'] [tv95, tv97]

tide, Zeit "time" [tv84]

titta > "teat" [rc]

tovaglia "tablecloth" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

Tran [jtw] [seafaring and fishing term]

truce, tregua [Sp < Germanic], trève [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

troop, troupeau "Herde" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

twik- "pinch off" > ?twig, Zweig m.?, tweak, twitch [cw, rc]

V, W
See also G

vodal "homeland" [OHG] [from Bach 1970] [tv84]

Wachs n., wax [jtw]

Waffe f., weapon [jtw]

guaffile "Haspel" [hook?] [It < Germanic] [tv84]

waip- "sweetbriar" > Middle Dutch wepe, weype < dialectic German [epc]

wak-e:- "to wake" > wacian [OE] > wake;
[< OHG wahten, s.v. wait] [Onions, ODEE cit. mw]
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic",
see Semitic w-q-i: "to keep, preserve"] [tv97]
watch, Wächter,
guaite [Fr < Frk wahta] [REW 9477c cit. mw]
guatare "to watch", guattero"Küchenjunge" [It < Langobardic wahtari] [REW 9478 cit. mw, tv84]
[same as wak-] [tv84] [< OHG wahten, s.v. wait] [Onions, ODEE cit. mw]

walhaz "foreigner" > Welsh, walnut, Walloon, Vlakh, Wälsche
[rel to folk?, to Volcae?] [cw]

wange, guancia "cheek" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

ward-e:- "to look out, to guard" > weardian [OE] > ward
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic",
see Semitic w-r-d, j-r-d [to descend, also "serve"] [tv97]

warrant, garant "guarantor" [Fr < Germanic] [tv84]

weasel, Wiesel [jtw]

weihen [tv84]

Weizen n., wheat [jtw] [Agriculture]

Welpe, hwelp [OE, O Sax] > whelp
[< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic";
see Sem. k-l-b "dog"] [tv97]

wepnam "weapon" [rc]

west, West m. [bc, jtw]

guidrigildo "reward" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

guiffa "Zeichen des rechtlichen Besitzes [property sign?]" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

winter, Winter [tv84]

Wirt m. "landlord" [jtw]

wolcae tribal name > ?folk (Latin) [rc]

Wolke [tv84]

womb [rc]

Wrack n., wreck [jtw]

wyf "female" > wife (West Germanic) [bc, cw, d, p&a, rc]

See also T

zazzera "mane" [It < Germanic] [tv84]

zwingen "to force" [tv84] [same as *twik-?

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