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Yusipova Rose Riza
TURKISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY
Editor T. E. Rybalchenko, Moscow, “Drofa”, 2007, ISBN 5-9576-0131-4

WORD-BUILDING AFFIXES OF TURKISH LANGUAGE

Links

 

Introduction

Türkic languages are agglutinative. They form semantical expressions by adding affixes to the root stem. English lost most of the Türkic affixes, and added some to its morphology. The modern Turkish retained most of the affixes, reactivated some that were out of use, and simplified orthography, collecting some phonetically close phonemes under a common symbol. The following listing of the Turkish suffixes allows to highlight modern English affixes genetically connected with the modern Turkish affixes. The modern Turkish language is a product of amalgamation of numerous Türkic languages, which contributed in varying degree to the modern language. A closer examination of the assembly of 42+ languages (the vague number reflects the current state of affairs, not the actual number) would likely produce forms that are genetically closer to the historical and current English forms. Unlike the Norse peoples, England has not preserved its sagas, unlike the Slavic folklore she did not incorporate Türkic history and folklore in her literary inheritance, and the only relict of its linguistic substrate remains the name cockney, in Türkic spelled köken - “motherland, native place, ancestral land”. Sticking out through the fluff of the later fantasies, the earliest reference to the Cockney is a “mythical luxurious country, first recorded in 1305”, a clear reference to the “ancestral land”, which turned out to be not that luxurious, since its inhabitants ended up in the foggy distant Albion and speaking a creolized mixture of Türkic, Norse, and Romance. English was already heavily creolized when Anglo-Saxons brought it over to the Albion, but the traces of its substrate are still fossilized in the lexis and morphology, and the agglutinated suffixation is an ingrained and burgeoning part of its morphology.

Posting notes are highlighted in blue. Page numbers are shown at the end of the page. Columns “English” and “Russian” are editorial additions.

Yusipova Rose Riza
TURKISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY

WORD-BUILDING AFFIXES OF TURKISH LANGUAGE

WORD-BUILDING AFFIXES OF TURKISH LANGUAGE
Introduction

The modern Turkish language has a large reservoir of words formed by affixation. The affixal way of word-building in Turkish is a standing means of expressing new concepts. History of the Turkish language lexicon reflects continued use of some affixes, obsolescence of others, and appearance or activation of the third. In the lexical structure of the modern Turkish language along with the words formed with low-productive affixes can be found words created today by productive affixes, some of them come down to us from antiquity, while others are relatively new.

High use of affixes may have a variety of causes. One of them is precision of its semantics, good for a wide use in forming words.

The freedom  in forming words is manifested in the ease in the creation of derivatives according to the corresponding structural and semantic models. Examples of occasional innovations can be found in the Turkish literature. For example, in the following cited sentences “Yol gittikçe dikleşiyor, toprak, ayak altındaki toprak taşlaşryor, kayalaşıyordu" (Samim Kocagöz, Ahmedin Kuruları), “... bu yıldızlı mavi gökyüzü altında “(Oktay Akbal, Önce Ekmekler Bozuldu),"... kompostoyu kaşıklıyordu “(Aziz Nesin, Biz Adam Olmalryuz) are the words created by the authors for those particular cases.

No single dictionary can register the entire vocabulary of a language, and even more so to inventory the continuous creation of the new words. The offered list below includes word-building affixes common in modern Turkish language, with their main uses, and some word-forming affixes used in word-forming function. A reader, with this list, may parse an absent in the dictionary derivative word to its constituent elements, and be able to understand its semantics. Affixes are listed in alphabetical order. As a base form of the affix was arbitrarily chosen a hard-row version, where is given interpretation of its semantic function. Phonetic variations of the hard-row affix are given by reference to the base case without explanation: -lik see -lık. For voiceless forms of the affix are given links to the voiced form: -çı see -.

For each affix, after interpretation of its semantics, are given examples with the affix. Examples are also given for some forms defined by reference.

Compound affixes are not listed. However, with the semantics for the simple affixes, and with the known sequence of their location, the meaning of the derived words can be understood by parsing it into its constituent morphemes (eg., bil-im-siz-lik).

No Spelling Transcr. Semantic Function English Russian
1 -a   forms nouns of the verbal stems, denoting result of the action named by the stem: yar-mak ''cleave' - yara 'wound', 'cut' (v. > n.)   ran - rana
(ðàí- - ðàíà)
2 -acak -ajak forms future tense participle. Substantivised participle denote: “that/one who would do it/one who should do it, with the action named by the stem”;
"that/one who would be a subject of the action named named by the stem”: yak-mak 'burn ', 'ignite' - yakacak 'fuel' (v. > part.)
   
3 -aç -ach forms nouns of the verbal stems denoting tools or means of action named by the stem: say-mak ''count' - sayaç 'counter' (v. > n.) delic-ac-y; pir-ac-y  
4 -ağan -aan forms adjectives of the verbal stems “showing properties named by the stem”. In some cases derived words imply “inclination, customary action named by the stem”: dur-mak 'stand' - durağan 'fixed', 'stable' (v. > adj.) giv-en  
5 -ağı -aı see -; kaşı-mak 'scratch', 'scrape' - kaşağı 'scraper' (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
6 -ak   forms nouns of verbal stems for:
a) place of action: sığın-mak 'hide' - sığınak ''shelter';
b) subject of action: uç-mak 'fly' - uçak 'plane';
c) subject of action, characterized by the stem: kork-mak 'fear' - korkak 'coward'
d) adjectives “denoting trait named by the stem”: parla-mak 'shine' - parlak 'brilliant'
   
7 -al   forms relative adjectives of nouns: ulus 'nation' - ulusal 'national' nation-al
historic-al
refus-al, deni-al
arriv-al
 
8 -am   see -ım; tut-mak 'miss', 'hold' - tutam 'fistful', 'armful', 'bundle'    
9 -amak   see -mak; bas-mak 'step on' - basamak 'step (ladder)'    
10 -amık -amyk see -mık; boz-mak 'spoil' - bozamık 'cloudy'    
11 -an I   a ( non-productive, non-accented ), forms adverbs for manner of action from Arab- Persian origin words: cemi 'joint' - ceman 'together', 'altogether' terrane-an
americ-an;
appear-ance;
contest-ant;
childr-en; ox-en
 
12 -an II   forms present-past tense participle of the verbal stems. Substantivised participle denote “that/one who would do it, with the action named by the stem”: kap-mak 'catch', 'seize' - kapan 'trap', 'snare' del - delan
(äåë - äåëàí)
13 -anak   forms nouns of the verbal stems denoting a result or object of action named by the stem: not tut-mak 'write down', 'to record' - tutanak 'protocol' contest-ant
lubric-ant
 
14 -ane   n ( non-productive ), forms of nominal stems: adjectives “intrinsic to what is named by the stem”: dost 'friend', 'pal' - dostane 'friendly', 'well-disposed';
adverbs “intrinsic to what is named by the stem”: nâmuskâr 'honest', 'respectable' - namuskârane 'honestly', 'good faith'
terrane-an
americ-an
krest-yane
(êðåñòü-ÿíå)
15 -ar   see -ır; yaz-mak 'write' - yazar 'writer' (v. > part.) burgl-ar, schol-ar
circul-ar, singul-ar
 
16 -at   a ( non-productive ), forms nouns of the Arab masdars and participles in respect of actions named by the stem, denoting: action:
process teşrif ''paying honors' - teşrifat 'ceremonial';
result  taksim 'division' - taksimat 'divisions', 'components' (part. > n.)
consul-ate (n)
elabor-ate (adj)
popul-ate (v)
 
17 -av   forms nouns of the verbal stems denoting result or object of action named by the stem: sına-mak ''try ' 'experience' - sınav 'test', 'examination' (v. > n.) active, corrective,
restive
 
18 -ay   forms nouns of nominal stems, most often denoting the name of the space where is located what is named by the stem: yan 'side' - yanay 'vertical cross-section', 'profile' (n. > n.) assay, essay;
alley
 
19 -ca -ja (unstressed), forms adjectives from nouns:
adjectives characterized by weakening or reinforcement of trait named by the stem of the noun (stressed), acı 'bitter' - acıca 'bitterish';
adjectives “intrinsic to what is named by the stem”: kahraman 'hero' - kahramanca 'heroic'; adverbs “intrinsic to what is named by the stem”:  düşman 'enemy' - düşmanca 'hostile';
appellatives denoting the language of the people named by the stem: Fransız 'Frenchman' - Fransızca 'French' (n. > adj.) /683/
on-ce, twi-ce
delica-cy; pira-cy
 
20 -cağaz
-cağız
-jaaz
-jayz
forms diminutive nouns of nominal stems. Sometimes derivatives carry some shade of compassion, empathy, dismissiveness: adam 'man' - adamcağaz 'poor dear', 'poor little'    
21 -ñàê I -jàê see -cık; kuzu 'lamb' - kuzucak 'little lamb' (n. > n., adj.)    
22 -ñàê II -jàê forms adjectives denoting “with a greater or lesser extent, quality, or traits, named by the stem” from nominal stems: ılı 'warm' - ılıcak 'lukewarm'    
23 -ñå -je see -ca; asker 'soldier’ — askerce 'in military fashion' (n. > adj.) on-ce, twi-ce
delica-cy; pira-cy
 
24 -ceğiz -jeiz see -cağaz; kedi 'cat - kediceğiz 'kitty'    
25 -ñåê I -jåê see -cık; göz 'eye' - gözcek 'peephole' (n. > n., adj.)    
26 -ñåê II -jåê see -cak II; büyük 'large' - büyücek 'largish'    
27 -cı -jy of nominal stems forms nouns denoting the person conducting operation named by the stem. Derivatives describe a person by: his activities dağ 'mountain' - dağcı 'climber';
by inclinations or actions: yalan 'lie' - yalancı 'liar', şaka 'joke' - şakacı 'joker';
in relation to the object of his knowledge or tools of action: kundura 'shoes' - kunduracı 'shoemaker'.
Also forms adjectives with the same stems (n. > n., adj.)
delica-cy; pira-cy  
28 -cığaz -jıaz see -cağaz; hanım 'woman' - hanımcığaz 'poor woman'    
29 -cık -jık forms nouns or adjectives of nominal stems. In most cases, derived words have diminutive-tenderness semantics: bağ 'rope' - bağcık 'small rope', 'ufak 'small - ufacık 'tiny' (n. > n., adj.)    
30 -cıl -jıl forms adjectives of the nominal stems with semantics of “loving what is named by the stem”: adam 'man' - adamcıl 'humane' 'tamed ( of animals)'; with [external ] trait characterizing the underlying stem (see -çil) (n. > adj.)    
31 -ci -ji see -; demir 'iron' - demirci 'smith' (n. > n., adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy  
32 -ciğez -jiez see -cağaz; ev 'house' - evciğez 'little house'    
33 -cik -jik see -cık; köpek 'dog' - köpekcik 'little dog', 'doggie' (n. > n., adj.)    
34 -cil -jil see -cıl; ben 'I' - bencil 'selfish' (n. > adj.) nation-al, historic-al  
35 -cu -ju see -; spor 'sport' - sporcu 'athlete' (n. > n., adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy  
36 -cuğaz -juaz see -cağaz; yavru 'child' - yavrucuğaz 'poor child'    
37 -cuk -juk see -cık; boru 'tube' - borucuk 'tube' (n. > n., adj.)    
38 -cul -jul see -cıl; kum 'sand' - kumcul 'sammofit (plant)' (n. > adj.) nation-al, historic-al  
39 -cü -jü see -; göz 'eye' - gözcü 'oculist', 'optometrist' (n. > n., adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy  
40 -cüğez -jüez see -cağaz; göz 'eye' - gözcüğez 'eyelet'    
41 -cük -jük see -cık; göl 'lake' - gölcük 'little lake', 'pond' (n. > n., adj.)    
42 -cül -jül see -cıl; göl 'lake' - gölcül 'growing in the lakes' (n. > adj.) nation-al, historic-al  
43 -ch see -inç; kazan-mak 'earn' - kazanç 'earnings' (v. > n., adj.) thinking (n.)
abating (adj.)
 
44 -ça -cha see -ca; dostt 'friend', 'buddy' - dostça 'friendly', 'amicably' (n. > adj.) on-ce, twi-ce
delica-cy; pira-cy
 
45 -çe -che see -ca; yiğit 'brave' - yiğitçe 'brave', 'courageous' (n. > adj.) on-ce, twi-ce
delica-cy; pira-cy
 
46 -çı -chy see -; balık 'fish' - balıkçı 'fisherman' (n. > n., adj.) /684/ delica-cy; pira-cy  
47 -çık -chyk see -cık; ağaç 'tree' - ağaççık 'little  tree' (n. > n., adj.)    
48 -çıl -chyl see -cıl; ak 'white' - akçıl 'white-like', 'whitish' (n. > adj.) nation-al, historic-al  
49 -ci -chi see -; diş 'tooth' - dişçi 'dentist' (n. > n., adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy  
50 -çik -chik see -cık; dil 'language' - dilçik 'tongue' (n. > n., adj.)    
51 -çil -chil see -cıl; kireç 'lime' - kireççil 'calciphilic (plant)' (n. > adj.) nation-al, historic-al  
52 -çu -chu see -; top 'tool' - topçu 'gunner' (n. > n., adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy  
53 -çuk -chuk see -cık; kuş 'bird' - kuşçuk 'bird' (n. > n., adj.)    
54 -çul -chul see -cıl; ot 'grass' - otçul 'herbivore' (n. > adj.) nation-al, historic-al  
55 -çü -chü see -; yük 'load' - yükçü 'loader' (n. > n., adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy  
56 -çük -chük see -cık (n. > n., adj.)    
57 -çül -chül see -cıl; gök 'sky' - gökçül 'heavenly (color )' (n. > adj.) delica-cy; pira-cy
nation-al, historic-al
 
58 -da   forms verbs from nominal stems (usually sound- or type-imitating words). Derivatives denote “display trait or property named by the stem”: cıvıl cıvıl 'imitation of birds chirping' - cıvıldamak 'tweet' (n. > v.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
59 -dan   (affix of original case), of nominal stems forms:
adverbs “as typical of what is named by the base”: yakın 'close' - yakından 'near';
adjectives “as typical of what is named by the base”: can 'soul' - candan 'soulful' (n. > adj, adv.)
wing-ed; beard-ed  
60 -dar   n '( non-productive ), of nominal stems forms nouns with semantics “that/one possessing what is named by the stem”: hisse 'share', 'stock' - hissedar 'shareholder';
adjectives with semantics “possessing what is named by the stem”: hava 'air' - havadar 'having a lot of air' (n. > n., adj.)
sharehold-er  
61 -daş -dash of nominal stems forms nouns denoting a person united by joint action or mutual link with another person (or persons ), based on the same relation to what is named by the stem: çağ 'time', 'period' - çağdaş 'contemporary '.
Also forms adjectives with the same stem (n. > n., adj.)
wing-ed; beard-ed  
62 -de   see -da; kütür kütür 'imitation of crunch, crack sound' - kütürdemek 'to pop', 'to rattle' (n. > v.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
63 -den   see -dan; erken 'early' - erkenden 'at dawn' (n. > adj,. adv.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
64 -deş -desh see -daş; ev 'house' - evdeş 'residing in a house with somebody' (n. > n., adj.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
65 -dı I   see - II (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
66 -di II   (affix, 3rd pers. sing. past tense), forms nouns denoting object (or person) performing an action named by the stem: alin-mak 'to be taken' - alındı '' receipt' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
67 -dik   forms past-present tense participle. Substantivised participles denote “one that acts or is acted upon as named by the stem”: tanı-mak 'to know', 'learn' - tanıdık 'familiar' (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
68 -dır   see -tır; yaz-mak 'write' - yazdırmak 'force to write' (v. > v.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
69 -di I   see - I (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
70 -di II   see - II (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
71 -dik   see -dik; bilin-mek 'to be famous' - bilindik 'known (number)' (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
72 -dir   see -tır; evlen-mek 'marry' - evlendirme 'marry off' (v. > v.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
73 -du I   see - I (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
74 -du II   see - II; uy-mak 'match', 'be suitable' - uydu 'satellite' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
75 -duk   see -dik (v. > part.) /685/ ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
76 -dur   see -tır; dur-mak 'stand' - durdurmak 'force to stand', 'to stop somebody' (v. > v.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
77 -dü I   see - I (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
78 -dü II   see - II; döv-mek 'beat' - dövdü 'kolotyshka' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
79 -dük   see -dik (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
80 -dür   see -tır; ör-mek 'knit', 'weave' - ördürmek 'cause to tie, weave' (v. > v.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
81 -e   see -a; sür-mek 'continue', 'last' - süre 'term', ' period' (v. > n.)    
82 -ecek -ejek see -acak; gel-mek 'come' - gelecek 'future' (v. > part.)    
83 -eç -ech see -; büyüt-mek 'increase' - büyüteç 'magnifying glass', 'magnifying glass' (v. > n.) delic-ac-y; pir-ac-y  
84 -eğen -een/-egen see -ağan; geç-mek 'pass' - geçeğen 'passing', 'temporary' (v. > adj.) giv-en  
85 -eği -ei see -; (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
86 -ek   see -ak; ürk-mek 'scared' - ürkek 'skittish'    
87 -el   see -al; öz 'itself' - özel 'personal' person-al  
88 -emek   see -mak; güt-mek 'lead' - güdemek 'pointer'    
899 -en I   see -an I; zihin 'mind' - zihnen 'in the mind', 'mental' (n. > adv.) wood-en
brok-en, rott-en;
childr-en;
know-n
ox-en (obs. pl.)
 
90 -en II   see -an II; 'ver-mek 'provide jobs' - işveren 'employer' (v. > n.) giv-en  
91 -enek   see -anak; gel-mek 'come' - gelenek 'tradition'    
92 -er   see -ır; gitmek 'leave' - gider 'expenditure, outflow' (v. > part.) glid-er  
93 -ev   see -av; söyle-mek 'talk' - söylev 'speech' (v. > n.) active, corrective,
restive
 
94 -ey   see -ay; gün 'day' - güney 'south' (n. > n.) allée - alley
köken - cockney
mone(ta) - money
 
95 -ga   forms nouns of the verbal stems for: instrument or device for: performing the action named by the stem;
object or result of the action named by the stem: yon-mak 'plane off (wood)' - yonga ''shavings (v. > n.)
poetic, scientific,
artistic
 
96 -gaç -gach forms of verbal stems:
nouns of “instrument, tool or device used to perform the action named by the stem”: dayan-mak 'rest on, stand on' - dayangaç ' support';
adjectives “producing the action named by the stem”: utan-mak 'ashamed/ - utangaç 'bashful' (v. > n., adj.)
   
97 -gan   forms adjectives of the verbal stems or nouns with traits named by the stem: kudur-mak ''amok' - kudurgan 'mad' hula (slur)- hooligan  
98 -ge   see -ga; süpür-mek 'sweep' - süpürge 'broom' (v. > n.) poetic, scientific,
artistic
 
99 -geç -gech see -gaç; süz-mek 'strain' - süzgeç 'sieve'    
100 -gen   see -gan; geçir-mek 'guide', 'pass' - geçirgen 'usher, guard', çekinmek 'be ashamed' - çekingen 'shy'    
101 -   forms nouns of the verbal stems denoting:
tool, object, device used for action named by the stem çal-mak 'play some instrument' - çalgı 'musical instrument';
name of the action: say-mak 'respect' (v.) - saygı 'respect' (n.) (v. > n.)
cloud-y, dream-y  
102 -gıç -gıch see -gaç    
103 -gın   forms passive adjectives of the verbal stems: kır-mak 'break' - kırgın 'broken'    
104 -gi   see -; ver-mek 'give' - vergi 'tax', sil-mek 'wipe' - silgi 'rag' (v. > n.)    
105 -giç -gich see -gaç    
106 -gil(ler)   forms from nouns terms for the family (clan) in classification of plants and animals: çançiçegı 'bell' - Çançiçeğîğîller 'Campanulaceae family (bell-shaped flowers)' /686/    
107 -gin   see -gın; ger-mek  'stretch' - gergin 'stretched'    
108 -gu   see -; duy-mak 'feel' - duygu 'feeling' (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
109 -guç -guch see -gaç    
110 -gun   see -gın; yor-mak 'tire' - yorgun 'tired'    
111 -gü   see -; gör-mek 'see' - görgü 'experience' (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
112 -güç -güch see -gaç; sür-mek 'grease, spread somrthing' - sürgüç 'ointment'    
113 -gün   see -gın; üz-mek 'torment' - üzgün 'exhausted'    
114 y forms nouns of the verbal stems, denoting the object that is a subject of the action, or a result of the action named by the stem: yaz-mak 'write' - yazı 'letter' (v. > n.)    
115 -ıcı -yjy forms of verbal stems:
nouns denoting acting object named by the stem: sat-mak 'sell' - satıcı 'seller'
adjectives with a trait named by the stem: yarat-mak 'create' - yaratıcı 'creates' (v. > n., adj.)
   
116 -ık -yk forms of verbal stems:
nouns denoting phenomenon or object that is a subject or result of the action named by the stem: aksır-mak 'sneeze' - aksırık 'sneezing';
adjectives denoting “the state that arose as a result of action  named by the stem”: aç-mak ''open' - açık 'open'
histor-ic-al  
117 -ıl I -yl forms adjectives from nouns with semantics “with the property named by the stem”: ısı ''heat' - ısıl 'heat-striken';
forms abstract nouns from verbal stems: an-mak 'recall' - anıl 'memory'
   
118 -ıl II -yl forms passive voice verbs with semantics: passive (from transitive verbal stems): kır-mak ''break' - kırılmak 'broken';
medial (from transitive verbal stems): at-mak ''throw' - atılmak 'rush';
impersonal medial ( from intransitive verbal stems)
   
119 -ılı -yly forms passive adjectives of the verbal stems: as-mak 'hang' - asılı 'hunged', 'hanging'    
120 -ım -ym forms nouns of the verbal stems. Derivatives denote: a result of the action: bak-mak 'watch', 'look' - bakım 'supervision', 'oversight';
quantity, measure, or proportion: sağ-mak 'to milk' - sağım 'milk yield';
separate act of action: at-mak 'shoot' - atım 'shot' (v. > n.)
   
121 -ın I -yn forms of verbal stems:
adjectives denoting the trait named by the stem: say-mak 'respect' - sayın 'respected';
nouns denoting a phenomenon or a subject of the action  object, or resulting from an action named by the stem: bas-mak 'print' - basın 'print', 'media'
   
122 -ın II -yn forms reflexive form of the verbal stems for:
passive (from transitive verbal stems): al-mak 'take' - alınmak 'to be taken ';
medial ( from intransitive verbal stems): kaç-mak 'flee' - kaçınmak 'shirk ',
reflexive (from transitive verbal stems): yıka-mak 'wash' - yıkanmak 'wash yourself'
   
123 -ınç -ynch forms of verbal stems:
nouns denoting a phenomenon or a subject of the action  object named by the stem: dal-mak 'thinking' - dalınç 'pensiveness';
adjectives “causing an action or a feeling that arose as a result of actions named by the stem" (v. > n., adj.)
thinking (n.)
abating (adj.)
 
124 -ıntı -ynty see - I; kır-mak 'break ', 'fracture' - kırıntı 'splinter', 'fragment' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
125 -ır -yr forms present-future tense participles of the verbal stems. Substantivated participles indicate "what (or that ) [continually] performs or may perform an action named by the stem" (v. > part.) /687/ circular; singular  
126 -ış I -ysh forms nouns of the verbal stems, often expressing manner or mode of action: bak-mak 'watch' - bakış 'glance' (v. > n.) reddish
bluish
 
127 -ış II -ysh forms reciprocal voice with semantics of cooperative action or participation in action conducted by another person or persons from verbal stems: kaç-mak 'flee' - kaçışmak 'to scatter' ( in all directions );
reciprocal action: bak-mak 'look' - bakışmak 'to look at each other', 'exchange glances'
reddish
bluish
 
128 -ıt -yt forms nouns with a trait named by the (verbal?) stem: yap-mak 'make' - yapıt 'product' neighborhood
brotherhood
falsehood
 
129 -i I   see -ı; diz-mek 'place in rows', 'string' - dizi 'number', 'string up' (e.g. pearls )    
130 -i II, -î   forms relative adjectives of nouns: hayat 'life' - hayatî 'vital'    
131 -ici -iji see -ıcı; seç-mek 'select', 'elect' - seçici 'elector', ' voter' (v. > n., adj.)    
132 -ik   see -ık; değiş-mek 'change' - değişik 'changeful'    
133 -il I   see -ıl I; tek 'one' - tekil 'singular'    
134 -il II   see -ıl II; dik-mek 'sew' - dikilmek 'be sown'    
135 -ili   see -ılı; dik-mek 'erect' - dikili 'raised'    
136 -im   see -ım; dil-mek 'cut to pieces' - dilim 'chunk'    
137 -imsi   see - (n. > adj.) delica-cy, pira-cy  
138 -imtırak   see -mtırak; yeşil 'green' - yeşilimtırak 'greenish'    
139 -in I   see -ın I; ek-mek 'sow' - ekin 'crop'    
140 -in II   see -ın II; giy-mek 'wear' - giyinmek 'don'    
141 -inç -inch see (v. > n., adj.) sevin-mek 'rejoice' - sevinç 'joy' (v. > n., adj.) thinking (n.)
abating (adj.)
 
142 -inti   see - I; gez-mek 'walk' - gezinti 'stroll' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
143 -ir   see -ır; gel-mek 'come' - gelir 'income' (v. > part.) burgl-ar, schol-ar
circul-ar, singul-ar;
glid-er
 
144 -iş I   see -ış I; gir-mek 'enter' - giriş 'entrance', 'entry'    
145 -iş II   see -ış II; sev-mek 'love' - sevişmek 'love each other'    
146 -it   see -ıt; geç-mek 'pass' - geçit 'passage' ( > n.) neighborhood
brotherhood
falsehood
 
147 -iyat   a ( non-productive ), forms of adjectives , nouns with a touch of collectivity: iktisat 'saving' - iktisadiyat 'economy'    
148 -iyet   a ( non-productive ) forms abstract nouns of nouns and masdars: merkez 'center' - merkeziyet 'centralization', memur 'employee' - memuriyet 'service'    
149 -k   see -ak; tara-mak 'to comb' - tarak 'a comb'    
150 -kaç -kach of the verbal stems, forms nouns, often denoting instrument or tool of action: kıs-mak 'compress' - kıskaç 'vice' (v. > n.)    
151 -kan   see -gan; unut-mak 'forget' - unutkan 'forgetful'    
152 -keç -kech see -kaç    
153 -ken   see -gan; çekiş-mek 'quarrel' - çekişken 'grumpy'    
154 -kı -ky see -; bas-mak 'to press' - baskı 'a press' (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
155 -kın -kyn see -gın; kaç-mak 'flee' - kaçkın ''runaway', 'fugitive'    
156 -ki I   from nominal stems forms adjectives “with local or temporary sign that named by the stem”: akşam 'evening' - akşamki 'nocturnal', 'nightly'; yukâr 'upward'- yukanki 'at the top'    
157 -ki II   see -; kes-mek 'cut' - keski 'cutter tool', 'cutter' (v. > n.) /688/ cloud-y, dream-y  
158 -kin   see -gın; seç-mek 'elect', 'select' - seçkin 'elected'    
159 -ku   see -; uy-mak 'to sleep' - yku 'a sleep' (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
160 -kun   see -gın; coş-mak 'get excited', 'worry' - coşkun 'excited', 'agitated'    
161 -kü I   see - I; dün 'yesterday' - dünkü 'yesterday's'    
162 -kü II   see - (v. > n.) cloud-y, dream-y  
163 -kün   see -gın; kös-mek 'sulk', 'seethe' - köşkün 'angry', 'irate'    
164 -l   see -ıl I    
165 -la   forms verbs from nominal stems. Derivatives denote:
“action with an object, instrument, or means named by the stem”: balta 'an ax' - baltalamak 'to ax';
“subjected to what is named by the stem”: tuz 'a salt' - tuzlamak 'to salt';
“display trait or property named by the stem”: topal 'lame' - topallamak 'to limp' (n. > v.)
   
166 -lan   forms verbs from nominal stems. Derivatives denote:
“subjected to (or exposed to)what is named by the stem”: buz 'ice' - buzlanmak 'to ice up';
“acquire a trait named by the stem”: hasta 'a sick' - hastalanmak 'to get sick' (n. > v.)
   
167 -laş -lash forms verbs from nominal stems “with trait named by the stem”, or “attaining properties named by the stem”: ağır 'heavy' - ağırlaşmak 'to grow heavy', 'become heavy' (n. > v.)    
168 -layın   see -leyin    
169 -le   see -la; kir 'mud' - kirlemek 'smudge'    
170 -len   see -lan; kir 'mud' - kirlenmek 'smudged', 'soiled'    
171 -leş -lesh see -laş; iyi 'good' - iyileşmek 'improve'    
172 -leyin   forms adverbs of nouns denoting time of day: sabah 'morning - sabahleyin 'matutinal'    
173 -lı -ly forms nouns and adjectives of nominal noun stems. Derivatives denote “with trait named by the stem”: para 'money' - paralı 'monetary',
“with trait or property named by the stem”: tat 'taste '- tatlı 'tasty';
“native or resident of the area named by the stem”: Moskova 'Moscow' - Moskovalı 'Muscovite', 'resident of Moscow' (n. > n., adj.)
   
174 -lık -lyk forms nouns and adjectives of nominal noun stems:
abstract: ağır 'heavy' - ağırlık 'burden '
collective denoting clustering place of objects named by the stem: ağaç 'tree' - ağaçlık 'wooded place', 'grove'
purpose: baş 'head' - başlık 'headgear',
related to time or inclusive of time named by the stem: hafta 'week' - haftalık 'weekly' (n. > n., adj.)
   
175 -li   see -; şeker 'sugar' - şekerli 'with sugar', 'sugary'    
176 -lik   see -lık; güzel 'beautiful' - güzellik 'beauty'    
177 -lu   see -; su 'water' - sulu 'watery', 'containing water'    
178 -luk   see -lık; tuz 'salt' - tuzluk 'salt shaker'    
179 -lü   see -; süt 'milk' - sütlü 'milky', 'with milk'    
180 -lük   see -lık; güç 'difficult' - güçlük 'difficulties'    
181 -m   see -ım; ye-mek 'eat' - yem 'foddder'    
1822 -ma   forms of verbal stems:
nouns denoting an action or state: doğ-mak 'born' - doğma 'birth ';
adjectives denoting “subjected to the action named by the stem”: yap-mak 'to do' - yapma 'made-up', 'false ' /689/
   
183 -maç -mach of the verbal stems forms nouns denoting instrument, object, or device designed to perform the action named by the stem: doğrult-mak 'straighten' - doğrultmaç 'rectifier' (v. > n.)    
184 -mak   of the verbal stems forms nouns denoting result or object of action named by the stem: kay-mak 'slide', 'slip down' - kaymak 'cream';
tool, object, or device designed for the action named by the stem: çak-mak 'strike a fire' - çakmak 'lighter', 'flint' (v. > n.)
merrymake,
speechmake
 
185 -man   of the verbal stems forms nouns denoting person related to the subject matter or phenomenon named by the stem: say-mak 'to count' - sayman 'accountant' (v. > n.) beadsman,
bondman,
layman
 
186 -maz   forms a negative form of present-future tense participle. Substantivized participles denote “absence of what is named by the stem”: utan-mak 'ashamed', 'embarrassed' - utanmaz 'shameless', 'insolent'    
187 -me   see -ma; görüş-mek 'to meet', 'see someone' - görüşme 'meeting', 'date'    
188 -meç -mech see -maç; em-mek 'suck', 'suck out' - emmeç 'vacuum pump'    
189 -mek   see -mak; ek-mek 'sow' - ekmek 'bread' merrymake,
speechmake
 
190 -men   see -man; öğret-mek 'teach' - öğretmen 'teacher' beadsman,
bondman,
layman
 
191 -mez   see -maz; öl-mek 'die' - ölmez 'immortal'    
192 -mık -myk of the verbal stems forms nouns denoting result or object of action named by the stem: kıy-mak 'chop', 'chop ( to pieces )' - kıymık 'chip', 'splinter' (v. > n.)    
193 -mış -mysh of the verbal stems forms form past tense participle. Substantivized participle denote “one that acts as named by the stem”: oku-mak 'read' - okumuş 'scientist'    
194 -mik   see -mık; çiğne-mek 'chew' - çiğnemik 'chewed food'    
195 -miş   see -mış; geç-mek 'pass' - geçmiş 'past'    
196 -msı,
-msi
  see -; dalga 'wave' - dalgamsı 'wavy', iğne 'needle' - iğnemsi 'needle-like' (n. > adj.) delica-cy, pira-cy  
197 -mtırak   forms adjectives from nominal stems denoting incompleteness of the trait named by the stem: tatlı 'sweet' - tatlımtırak 'sweetish'    
198 -muk   see -mık; kus-mak 'vomit', 'throw up' - kusmuk 'a vomit'    
199 -muş -mush see -mış; ol-mak 'ripen' - olmuş 'ripe'    
200 -mük   see -mık    
201 -müş -müsh see -mış    
202 -n   see -ın II; boya-mak 'paint' - boyanmak 'painted'    
203 -nç -nch see -inç    
204 -r   see -ır; oku-mak 'read' - okur 'reader' (v. > part.) burgl-ar, schol-ar
circul-ar, singul-ar;
glid-er
 
205 -sal,
-sel
  forms relative adjectives of nouns: kut 'luck' - kutsal 'happy', gök 'sky' - göksel 'heavenly'    
206 -sı -sy forms adjectives of nouns denoting “certain degree of quality or traits named by the stem”: aptal 'fool' - aptalsı 'silly' (n. > adj.) delica-cy, pira-cy  
207 -sıl -syl forms adjectives of nouns denoting “with a trait named by the stem”: damak 'palate' - damaksıl 'palatal' /690/    
208 -sız -syz forms privative adjectives of nominal stems. Derivatives denote absence of what is named by the stem: hak 'right' - haksız 'rightless', 'ineligible    
209 -si   see -; erkek 'man - erkeksi 'manly' (n. > adj.) on-ce, twi-ce
delica-cy; pira-cy
 
210 -sil   see -sıl (n. > adj.)    
211 -siz   see -sız; ümit 'hope - ümitsiz 'hopeless' (n. > adj.)    
212 -su   see -; maymun 'monkey' - maymunsu 'monkeyish', 'ape' (n. > adj.) delica-cy, pira-cy  
213 -sul   see -sıl; óîê 'no' - yoksul 'beggar' (n. > adj.)    
214 -suz   see -sız; uyku 'sleep' - uykusuz 'sleepless' (n. > adj.)    
215 -sü   see -; kök 'root' - köksü 'root-like' (n. > adj.) delica-cy, pira-cy  
216 -sül   see -sıl (n. > adj.)    
217 -süz   see -sız; ölçü 'measure' - ölçüsüz 'measureless', 'unmeasurable'    
218 -t   forms causative voice verbs denoting:
causative (from transitive verb stems): oku-mak 'to read' - okutmak 'force to read';
active ( from intransitive verb stems): kayna-mak 'to be boiling' - kaynatmak 'to boil'
wing-ed; beard-ed  
219 -ta   see -da; (n. > v.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
220 -tan   see -dan; top 'ball' - toptan 'wholesale', 'rounding' (n. > adj, adv.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
221 -tar   see -dar; bayrak 'banner' - bayraktar 'standard-bearer' (n. > n.) sharehold-er  
222 -taş -tash see -daş; yurt 'country', 'homeland' - yurttaş 'compatriot' (n. > n., adj.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
223 -tay   forms nouns of noun stems denoting institution for the actions named by the stem: yargı 'jurisdiction' - yargıtay 'prosecution' (n. > n., adj.)    
224 -te   see -da; (n. > v.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
225 -ten   see -dan; 'guts' - içten 'from the heart' (n. > adj, adv.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
226 -teş -tesh see -daş; denk 'equal' - denkteş 'match' (n. > n., adj.) wing-ed; beard-ed  
227 -tı I -ty forms nouns of verbal stems and onomatopoeic words denoting result of the action named by the stem: bağır-mak 'to yell', 'to roar' - bağırtı 'a cry', 'a roar' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
228 -tı II -ty see - II (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
229 -tık -tyk see -dik (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
230 -tır   forms causative voice form denoting:
causative (from transitive verb stems): aç-mak 'open' - açtırmak 'force open';
active ( from intransitive verb stems): çarp-mak 'be hit' - çarptırmak 'to hit' (v. > v.)
ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
231 -ti I   see - I (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
232 -ti II   see - II (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
233 -tik   see -dik (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
234 -tir   see -tır; ek-mek 'to sow' - ektirmek 'cause to sow' (v. > v.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
235 -tu I   see - I; horul horul 'onomatopoetic of snoring' - horultu 'a snore', 'snoring' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
236 -tu II   see - II (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
237 -tuk   see -dik (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
238 -tur   see -tır; yut-mak 'swallow' - yutturmak 'cause swallow' (v. > v.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
239 -tü I   see -; gümbür gümbür 'onomatopoetic of rumble' - gümbürtü 'a rumble', 'a noise', 'a knock' (v. > n.)    
240 -tü II   see - II (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
241 -tük   see -dik (v. > part.) ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-t
 
242 -tür   see -tır; tüt-mek 'to smoke' - tüttürmek 'cause to make smoke' (v. > v.) /691/ ask-ed, slep-t,
wen-
 
243 -u   see -ı; sor-mak 'ask' - soru 'question'    
244 -ucu -uju see -ıcı; boğ-mak 'choke', 'cause asphyxiation' - boğucu 'suffocating' (v. > n., adj.)    
245 -uk   see -ık; oy-mak 'peck' - oyuk 'hole', sol-mak 'fade' - soluk 'faded    
246 -ul I   see -ıl I; çok 'much', 'many' - çoğul 'plural'    
247 -ul II   see -ıl II; kur-mak 'place' - kurulmak 'to be located'    
248 -ulu   see -ılı    
249 -um   see -ım; dur-mak 'to stand' - durum 'position'    
250 -un I   see -ın I; sor-mak 'ask' - sorun 'problem'    
251 -un II   see -ın II; tut-mak 'hold' - tutunmak 'hold on to'    
252 -unç -unch see (v. > n., adj.) kork-mak 'to fear' - korkunç 'scary' (v. > n., adj.) thinking (n.)
abating (adj.)
 
253 -untu   see - I; boz-mak 'to spoil', 'to damage' - bozuntu 'debris' (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
254 -ur   see -ır (v. > part.) burgl-ar, schol-ar
circul-ar, singul-ar;
glid-er
 
255 -uş I -ush see -ış I; uç-mak 'to fly' - uçuş 'flight'    
256 -uş II -ush see -ış II; vur-mak 'to hit', 'strike' - vuruşmak 'fight', 'hit each other'    
257 -ut   see -ıt; kon-mak 'settle', 'stay over' - konut 'residence', 'dwelling' ( > n.) neighborhood
brotherhood
falsehood
 
258   see -ı; ört-mek 'to cover' - örtü 'veil'    
259 -üçü -üchü see -ıcı; güldür-mek 'raise a laugh', 'make to laugh' - güldürücü 'raising laughter', 'funny' (v. > n., adj.)    
260 -ük   see -ık; düş-mek 'to fall' - düşük 'dropped', 'lowered'    
261 -ül I   see -ıl I    
262 -ül II   see -ıl II; dön-mek 'to spin' - dönülmek 'to rotate'    
263 -ülü   see -ılı; göm-mek 'to bury', 'entomb' - gömülü 'buried', 'entombed'    
264 -üm   see -ım; bük-mak 'wind', 'twist' - büküm 'hank'    
265 -ün I   see -ın I    
266 -ün II   see -ın II; böl-mek 'to divide' - bölünmek 'to share'    
267 -ünç -ünch see -inç; gül-mek 'laugh' - gülünç 'funny', 'ridiculous' (v. > n., adj.) thinking (n.)
abating (adj.)
 
268 -üntü   see - I; çök-mek 'to droop', 'settle' - çöküntü 'sediment', 'precipitate (v. > n.) loyal-ty, puri-ty  
269 -ür   see -ır; düşün-mek 'think' - düşünür 'thinker' (v. > part.) burgl-ar, schol-ar
circul-ar, singul-ar;
glid-er
 
270 -üş I -üsh see -ış I; dön-mek 'to return' - dönüş 'a return'    
271 -üş II -üsh see -ış II; öp-mek 'to kiss' - öpüşmek 'kiss each other'    
272 -üt   see -ıt ( > n.) neighborhood
brotherhood
falsehood
 
273 -yen   see -an I; mütemadi 'continuous' - mütemadiyen 'continuously'    
274 -yıcı -yıjı see -ıcı; sapta-mak 'fix' - saptayıcı 'fixator' (v. > n., adj.)    
275 -yiş -yish see -ış I; anla-mak 'understand' - anlayış 'understanding'    
276 -yici -yiji see -ıcı; önle-mek 'warn' - önleyici 'warning' (v. > n., adj.)    
277 -yiş -yish see -ış I; söyle-mek 'speak' - söyleyiş 'manner of speaking'    
278 -yucu -yuju see -ıcı; oku-mak 'read' - okuyucu 'reader' (v. > n., adj.)    
279 -yuş -yush see -ış I; oku-mak 'read' - okuyuş 'manner of reading'    
280 -yücü -yüjü see -ıcı    
281 -yüş -yüsh see -ış I; yürü-mek 'walk' - yürüyüp 'gait' /692/    

References

A.N. Kononov, Grammar of Modern Turkish language, Moscow-Leningrad, 1956
A.N. Baskakov, Theoretical Grammar of Turkish language. M., 1983
Muharrem Ergin, Türk Dil Bilgisi, İstanbul, 1962
Türkçe Sözlük, Ankara, 1998
Vecihe Hatiboğlu, Türkçenin Sözdizimi, Ankara, 1972
Vecihe Hatiboğlu, Türkçenin Ekleri, Ankara, 1974
/ 682 /

Publisher's data

Reference publication
Yusipova Rose Riza
TURKISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY
Editor T. E. Rybalchenko
Signed in print 14/09/05. Format 70x100 '/ w. Offset paper. Headset “St. Petersburg." Offset printing. Conv. Pec. liter. 57.2. Educational-ed. liter. 67.37. Extras. circulation of 3,000 copies. Order number 5368.
OOO “Russian-language media"
ISBN 5-9576-0131-4
9 785957 601319
117303, Moscow, p/111.
Printed in full compliance with the quality provided in the slides of “Mozhayskiy printing plant"
143200, Mojaisk, st. Mira, 93.

 

 

“”čθδğŋγşāáäēə ï öōüūû“” Türkic Türkic