The purpose of this work was study of Bulgarian written monuments
written by known scripts. The questions of isolated lexical loans
are not examined.
In 1946. I.Venediktov published a Bulgarian inscription
found in one of the churches near the city of PreSlav. The inscription is
in Greek script (Fig.1):
|Fig. 1 Original Text
||Fig. 2 Parsed Text
||Fig. 3 Text Transliterated to Türkic
Independently from each other, this inscription was studied by J.Denis and Fr.
Altheim. According to their readings the inscription represents an inventory of
arms or chain armored warriors commanded by two superiors.
boyar of internal service (:) chain armors [χγπε χιυγμñχπ]
455, helmets [òώóëñõè] 540, chain
(?) 427, helmets 854(.)
òώóðòώóíà ïèëå (title?)
jupan (:) chain armors åñòðóãèí
(?) 20, helmets
40, chain armors àëõàñè (?) 1, õëώóáðèí
Tsitkoj, internal bojla, mercenary: chain armors 455, his helmets 540;
above that armors 427; his helmets 854. Together with his four (men) Zupan.
Above that armors 20, his helmets 40, his
herald (?): armors 1, on a guide 1.
Both translations elicit great doubts in the philological interpretation of
the monument, because they do not consider the script system, and translate the lexicon
too loose, and in particular, connect the whole text with a listing of the arms,
which is rather doubtful by any Türkic standards. The analysis of the monument
shows, that between the colons are the numerals, or in other cases are the Bulgarian words.
And because of repetitions, the structure of the text is clearly visible, and it can be divided into
sentences or syntaxically visible expressions (Fig.2).
The following should be said about the graphic system:
1. The script does not use the letter "kappa" κ, but only "hi"
χ (Shown as "kh" in the
2. The script does not use the letter letters ι (only
è) and î (only ώ)
for the vowels.
Later, similarly, in Cyrillics was used only the sign for "eta" and
to render [i].
Though in the Bulgarian inscription is used only "omega", phonetically it is used
on as "î micron" î, and is
rendered in ligature ώó [u],
corresponds Greek and Slavic
î. The vowel
ó at at that time, probably, still
differed from ι, è, compare the
alternation inside the same word åñòðώãèí
In transliteration it is rendered via [i].
3. The sonorous affricative  is rendered in the
monument by "dzeta", and the voiceless [ts] is rendered
by ligature τz. The sequence ñõ
is obviously a ligature,
because it is found in the text only after consonants, and the sequence of
three consonants in Türkic languages are restricted. As a comparison with the
Chuvash show, that way is rendered the sibilant of the affrikate [ch].
This is a rather
unusual way of rendering of the affrikate, but however it is possible that that
simplification of a trigram combination τñχ.
zit khon ićirgon
khumči khipe 455 tulči 540
estrogin khipe 427 tulči 854
opan estrigin khipe 20 tulči 40
alkhasi khipe 1 khlubrin 1
A new (Prof. O.A.Mudrak) translation of the inscription:
seven days working
hard (=becoming assiduous);
cups increased from 455 [ea] to 540;
buckles increased from 427 to 854 (i.e. 2
able to stretch time // able to bargain;
kaftan buckles increased from 20 to 40 (i.e. 2
1 [ea] by laziness [remained] 1.
zit khon - "seven days", zit is Türk. *jeti.
khon - Chuv. kon "day" (Türk. *kün). The Chuvash and Bulgarian forms
reflect *ö (Mudrak 1993, p. 69). (Here and below the Prof. O.A.Mudrak is
bending facts to get a proper evidence conforming to the official doctrine. It
maybe a self-censorship that, in addition to the official censorship, existed in
the 20th century and is still with us: missing examples are Hypothetical Original Root gün, present
Turkmen gün, Cuvash kun, Gagauz gün, Turkish, Azeri gün, Karachai, Kumyk kün,
Tatar kö, Kazakh kün, Uzbek, Uygur kun, Tuvinian xün, Sakha kün, Khakassian kün,
Kirghiz kün, see Download dictionary of 1819 words in 13 Türkic languages -
Excel file - Translator's Note)
ićirgon - "working hard". This word is a derivative from
pra-Türk. *ilch "task, work" (Chuv. əś,
Türk. *ish). In this case it is visible that
in the Bulgarian by that time pra-Türk. combination *1ñh was simplified (like
in modern Chuvash), even though in so called "Bulgarisms" in the Hungarian language
still retained: compare Hung. gyümölcs "fruit" ~
Chuv. śiməś ~ Türk. *jemish
< pra-Türk. *jemilch (see. Illich-Svitych 1971, p. XV).
Turkmen iš, Cuvash eç, Gagauz iš, Turkish, Azeri iš, Karachai, Kumyk iš, Tatar
eš, Kazakh is, South Alaic iš, Uzbek, Uygur iš, Tuvinian iš, Yakut i:s,
Khakassian istenie, Kirghiz iš. If you give only white balls to the academicians
to vote, there will be no black balls in the voting urn, and viola! a new
academician is born! Welcome to our science shop where we make science! -
bule - 1) "together" ~ Chuv. -bala, Türk. -bi/üle (n). In this case in
inscription the sonorous consonant in anlaut as a result of sandhi after previous
nosal sonant; 2) a "connecting" verbal adverb from a Türk. verb
*bol- "to become" (Chuv. pol-) or Türk. *böl- "divide" (Chuv. pül-)
(I.e. this is a euphemism for simple " Not Chuvash " in Russian Türkological parlance. All you
need is to learn how to read the blanks between the black lines - Translator's
khumchi - "a type of a cup" (?) pra-Türk. *kawm(i)ch >
Tuv. ximish, Uig. qemich. Judging by the Tuv., in this word was pra-Türkic....
A Chuvash correspondence to
this word is not known yet, but however in quite a lot of nominal roots in
the Chuvash were preserved the final vowels that were lost in other subgroups...
another high level euphemism for " Not Chuvash " in perfectly elucidated
mumbling - Translator's Note).
kiðå - " a kind, a form "...
tulchi "sated, achieve, increase" ~ Chuv. tol-, Türk. *töl-.
Here the form of the 3rd person past perfect -ñhi ~ Chuv.-ñhə, Türk. *-di/i with
palatalized dental ñh before *i / ι.
estrogin, estrigin "earring, clothes pin" ~ Türk. *isirga.
inquisitive reader will be served better by going through the original, and also
through the Vasme'r Dictionary, to enjoy an amazing legwork of authoritative
scholars: the Assyrians, and the Türks from Danube to Pacific managed to borrow
the word "isirga" from Slavic. Not even a fluff of idea visits the immenents
that this is a Hunnic or pre-Hunnic borrowing into Slavic that created the Slavs
proper, as a splinter of Balto-Slavs, by inclusion a part of the Balto-Slavs into
the Türkic orbit. Without borrowings like "isirga" there is no
Slavs, they are
still undifferentiated Balto-Slavs. Based on a property of an isogloss, and a
timing of Bulgar-Slavic contacts, the author can date the time of acquisition of
this word by the poor Ancient Assyrians: 7th-9th c. AD. Never underestimate the
magical powers of the linguistic sciences on the way from A to Z! - Translator's
turtuna - a connecting verbal adverb from the verb "drug on, extend (task), bargain" ~
Chuv. turdn-, pra-Türk. *tawrt-un- > Tuv. tirtin- (Mudrak 1993,
p. 104). By the beginning of the Middle Chuvashian
period in the development of the Chuvashian phonetics (approximately at the boundary of
the 1-st millennium) in the place of the pra-Türk. *aw was already -û-(Mudrak 1993,
and the Bulgarian in this case and also in the word kumchi, very well corresponds
with the Middle Chuvashian reflexes of the pra-Türk. *-aw-.
pile - connecting verbal adverb from the verb "know, be able, can" ~
Chuv. pə1-, Türk. *bil-. (A slight slight of hands again: Turkmen bil,
Cuvash pĕl, Gagauz bil, Turkish, Azeri bil, Karachai, Kumyk bil, Tatar belü,
Kazakh bilu, South Alaic pül, Uzbek, Uygur bil, Tuvinian bilir, Yakut bil,
Khakassian pilerge, Kirghiz bilüü - Translator's Note).
zopan "caftan" ~ a word spread in the Balkans, noted in Slavic as
*zupan, Greek ζγπαí,
Ital. giuppane. (M.Kashgari: čuðàn " - assistant
to vollage elder", this is another ridiculous example of Slavic "export" to
both the Türks from
Danube to Mongolia, and to Latins in Italy - Translator's Note)
alkhasi "pendant earring" with a possessive affix
of 3rd person, ~ Chuv.
alga id. < pra-Türk. *elke; ~ Chuv.-je, Türk. *-si / ι, which points to
orthographic indiffirence in this monument between "sh" and "s", but judging by
the development of
the vowels, here should be a final palatalized "s" (see below).
khlubrin (possibly with archaic instrumentalis in formation
of adverbs) ~ Chuv. lüprən, lüppərən "languid, lazy" (not
completely clear the initial kh- in Bulgarian; may be it is a prothetic
initial fluid sonant?).
This inscription is obviously a record or a study note reflecting
a purchase or production of small metal products. Its author was either
a trader, or a smith (jeweller?). In the first case "turtuna" should be translated as "bargaining", and in the second as "drugging
on the task, delaying".
|Correspondence of Bulgarian, Chuvash,
Türkic sounds in comparison with
(This table is supposed to provide ammunition for the Chuvash Postulate,
shows more the effort spent in that direction than the relationship within the
comparables: the dialectal differences within each group far exceed those between
the groups, not to mention the dubiety of the *reconstructed* Proto-Türkic isoglosses -
||e-, -o, ι-
||a (Tuv. ι)
Judging by consistency, the Bulgarian language is the most closely related to
the Chuvash language, and it has
characteristical only for Chuvash language unique developments of the phonemes ¹ 1, 2, 5, 8 (the
lexical alternate *ü ~ *ö in a word "day"), 10, 15, 17-20.....
continuation of the Bulgaro-Chuvash panegyric in the original. In reality, the
only hard conclusion that can be made is that the Bulgars used Türkic for
routine notes. The presence of palatalized dialect is inconclusive, but should
not be surprising to be somewhat present, since the Suvars, a titular member of
the Mari-Suvar conglomerate now called Chuvash, were a prominent component of
the Bulgar societies - Translator's
Despite the limited material, it is possible to note that the spelling norms
of recording the Bulgarian language with the Greek letters are fairly well developed, and form
a harmonious perceptible system, compare the use of ligatures ώó, ñõ and regular
exclusion of letters ê, î, ι. This allows to
presume a presence of a (short-lived?)
tradition of use by the Bulgars (by that time partly Christianized) of the Greek
script for their household needs. Hopefully, new finds of
Bulgarian inscriptions with the Greek letters would come to light.